Essay about Keller’s Theory vs. Wlodkowski’s Theory: Comparison and Contrast

Essay about Keller’s Theory vs. Wlodkowski’s Theory: Comparison and Contrast

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It is important at any level of teaching and/or training that whoever being taught is not only motivated to learn but they are motivated to retain what has been taught. In this paper the definition of motivational design concept will be discussed as well as John Keller’s A.R.C.S. (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design and Raymond J. Wlodkowski’s Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching. The similarities between both theories in addition to the differences will also be discussed.
What is a motivational design concept? It is the process of orchestrating procedures and/or resources that causes a change in ones enthusiasm, drive and/or motivation. These motivational design concepts can be used in many different ways such as encouraging ones peoples’ skills, inspire employees to work more effectively in the workplace and/or arouse students to desire to learn and retain what is being taught ( Keller, 2006).
John Keller’s A.R.C.S. (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design is broken down into four different steps Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction (ARCS). These are the steps of Keller’s believes will encourage and sustain motivation in the learning process. The first step is Attention it has two components perceptual arousal and inquiry arousal. The perceptual arousal uses the element of surprise, intrigue and uncertainty to stimulate interest. The inquiry arousal challenges ones intellect and stimulate ones inquisitiveness by asking questions and giving problems to solved. The use of videos presentation, discussion groups and lectures (Keller, 2006). The use of humor is very effective in gaining attention but, not too much because it can be distracting from the topic being taught. (Keller, 2006)...

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...or training problem.

Ginsberg, Margery B. & Wlodkowski, Raymond J. (2009). Diversity & Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching in College (2nd Ed.). San Francisco, California.

Keller, John M. (2006). What is the ARCS Model? Retrieved July 4, 2011 from

Keller, John M. (2006). What Are the Elements of Learner Motivation? Retrieved July 4, 2011

Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011). ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller)
at Retrieved July 4th, 2011 from

Wlodkowski, Raymond J. (2008). Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn: A Comprehensive
Guide for Teaching All Adults (3rd Ed.). San Francisco, California.

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