Essay on Is Demography A Discipline?

Essay on Is Demography A Discipline?

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Pre-Lab Questions
1. Demography is a discipline in Ecology that deals with population measures such as, age, size and overall structure are critical to demographic work. Demography is used to help understand a population’s growth pattern, although not all individuals are the same age and size or have the same survival and birth rates. Demography allows for greater depth and detail of a population’s structure to be characterized and analyzed.

2. There are two methods for collecting demographic data, static and dynamic. The static method of collection, also known as time specific, looks at existing populations and classifies age classes from samples of individuals living a population (inventories). This method also includes looking for evidence of dead organisms and measuring their ages through age classes. Either way age classes are determined from a sample of the population at one period in time. The dynamic method of collection, also known as the cohort method, looks at individuals of a population that are all born in the same season. Wherein, all newborn individuals in a given timeframe are marked and then followed throughout time. Each new sample creates a subset, which indicates the number of individuals in an age class as well as determines their age class. This method is long term and the researcher does not need to determine the age class of the individual.

3. Survivorship is the number or proportion of individuals from the newborn class surviving to the timeframe of interest. Survivor rate is the number or proportion of individuals surviving from year to year. Survivor rates are a “one time” step change, meaning time is measured in increments.

4. Fecundity is the number of offspring produced per reproductive event (pe...

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... As determined by a p-value of 0.000000000168, this result is very significant and the null hypothesis is rejected and there is a linear relationship between age at death and year born due to having a slope of 453.95. The r2 value of 0.00534 reflects a relatively low to moderate correlation between year born and age at death. These results are counterintuitive to the original hypothesis; however, the results can be explained by biological and social interactions. For example, it is possible that are behavioral and physiological traits that have inherently encouraged earlier death rates. Perhaps the changes in lifestyles after the industrial revolutions, have played a role. For example, changes in dietary patterns, increased globalization, and changes in the workplace have all lead to an increase in chronic disease that would put people at risk for an earlier death.

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