Critical theory has its roots in the Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)’s work ‘Prison Notebooks’ which was published at 1971. Antonio Gramsci took Marxism as a base for his works but the main differences between Marx and Gramsci is that Gramsci believes it is difficult to promote a revolution because there is flaw in Marxism which is concept of hegemony (Baylis et all, 2008, p. 150). Hegemony was a term used by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin to indicate political leadership of working class in the revolution. But Gramsci developed and expand this word as an analysis of how ruling capitalist class e...
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...mies of Antonio Gramsci. New Left Review.
2. Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. eds. 2008. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
3. Bush, George W., The Struggle for Democracy in Iraq: Speech to the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 12, 2005
4. Cox, R.(1981), ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’, Millennium Journal of International Studies, 10(2): 126-55
5. Perle, R., ‘Thank God for the Death of the UN’, Guardian, 21 March 2003
6. S/PV.3060 (1992) 41 (Austria)
7. S/PV.3060 (1992) 43-44 (China), 52 (Ecuador)
8. Unnamed Bush administration official, quoted in Bob Herbert, ‘Bush’s Blinkers’, New York Times, 22 October 2004
9. Younge, Gary, ‘In a Warped Reality’, Guardian (London), 21 March 2005
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