Further, adolescents tend to obtain less sleep as they move from sixth grade to twelfth grade, 8.4 hours to 6.9 hours respectively. Specifically, approximately 62% of ninth to twelfth grade adolescents get an insufficient amount of sleep on school nights. Twenty-five percent obtain a borderline amount of sleep, and only 9% get an optimal amount of sleep (NSF, 2006).
The growing body of research on adolescent sleep patterns has sparked interest in the underlying biological systems that govern sleep. For example, Carskadon (2002) reviewed literature from continents around the globe—South America, Asia, Australia, and Europe– and found that adolescents around the world experienced changes in their sleep patterns during puberty. Moreover, the results consistently indicated the change is not cultural, but rather biological.
In response to the mounting evidence, many venerated health, science, and educational agencies have taken a stance on adolescent sleep to best meet adolescents’ physical, psychological, mental, and emotional needs. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015), most U.S. high schools begin too early which precludes adolescents from obtaining a sufficient amount of sleep. For example, in an August 6, 2015 press release, the CDC noted 42 states indicated that between 75%-100% of their schools started before the recommended 8:30 A.M. time...
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...s old in 2015 (2016), indicating in an aging community.
In addition to a relatively older population, Caroline County’s population is diverse. Sixty-seven percent of the population identify as White, while 29% and 5% identify as African American, and Hispanic, respectively. People of American Indian, Asian, and Native Hawaiian descent live in the county, but represent less than 1% of the total population. In addition, 3% of Caroline County residents identify as two or more races (US Department of Commerce, 2015a; US Department of Commerce, 2015b).
Of the 3,411 residents, 12.5% of the population live in poverty. Moreover, almost 13% of this poverty grouping includes families with school-aged children. Additionally, 14% of all Caroline resident households receive some type of public assistance (US Department of Commerce, 2015a; US Department of Commerce, 2015b).
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