Descartes aimed to prove that the mind is known better than the physical body. In conjunction with this theory, any matter is known through the mind. This reasoning was used as a basis toward the dualism of the mind and body. The mind is a thinking entity. It has the ability to imagine, dream, and ultimately encompass the aspects that are not fundamentally matter. The body exists outside the mind. It is the connection to the external world based on the scientific properties of mass, size, shape, and motion. Descartes argues that the mind is distinct from the body. The mind thinks and does not have scientific properties. One’s body is a non-thinking thing. This distinction leads Descartes to conclude that the mind is not the same as the body. There is no characteristic that is categorized as both mind and body; the body can be changed, the mind cannot. In continuation, the mind can exist without the body and the body can exist without the mind since each thing is distinct. Descartes later expl...
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...establishes that a God does exist. He justifies this ideal with the fact that he thinks. If one thinks, one exists. If one exists, one thinks. He questions whether a God, could be deceiving him, but realizes that a God would not to do so. Ultimately, he cannot doubt his own existence. Immanuel Kant argues that reason is the foundation of morality. He establishes the belief that reason is universal to all entities. A morally good individual, uses reason as a guide to synthesize one’s actions. Kant also explains that individuals act from maxims; perspectives. A maxim consists of an “I should” statement, an action to do, and an intended result from the action; maxims should be general. Philosophy synthesizes such arguments. One may state, does God exist? Only philosophy provides a justification. As Kant explained, reason is universal and can be applied to all entities.
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