How the Human Body Obtains Cholesterol

How the Human Body Obtains Cholesterol

Length: 869 words (2.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
According to the scientific report from Gunness and Gidley (2010), the human body obtains cholesterol from two sources. The major source is liver. Liver synthesizes about 700-900 mg cholesterol per day. Another source is diet, which account for up to 300-500 mg/d.
The major route cholesterol eliminates from human body is to convert to bile salts (BS) and excrete from the gastrointestinal tract (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Bile salts (BS) are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Hydroxyl (OH) groups are inserted at several points of cholesterol, and then the second ring of cholesterol loses its double-bond. Finally, the hydrocarbon tail is shortened by three carbons, and a carboxyl group is added to the end ( Masterjohn, September 2, 2005). BS functions as solution of fat soluble components such as cholesterol, fat soluble vitamins and other lipids. BS micelles deliver those solubilized components into the enterocytes and help them digested in small intestine (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Once the role of BS is done, it is reabsorbed into the enterohepatic circulation by hepatic portal vein. The enterohepatic circulation is very efficient at reabsorbing and recycling of the BS, only approximately 5% of BS is excreted by fecal excretion (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). The vivo studies have shown that ingestion of SDF results in a 35% to 65% increase excretion of BS in feces, thus decrease the BS re-absorption into the enterohepatic circulation. The decrease of re-absorption causes a depletion of BS in liver, so cholesterol has to be quickly catabolized to replenish BS (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Further, cholesterol esters are also metabolized. The production of LDL-C surface membrane receptors is increased to enhance the uptake of LDL-C from the blood stream. Thus, Excess excretion of BS leads to reduction of total plasma cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Gunness & Gidley, 2010).
Cholesterol level in human body is also regulated by modulation of 3-hydroxy 3-mathyglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase (HMG-Co AR), an enzyme which promotes hepatic cholesterol synthesis (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Insulin is known as an activator of HMG-Co AR. Decreasing of insulin level will reduce HMG-Co AR activity, thus leads to reduction of cholesterol synthesis (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Viscous SDF slow down the digestion and absorption of macronutrients by delaying digestive enzyme transport and gastric emptying. Glucose is a macronutrient, SDF slow down postprandial glucose absorption. Decline of postprandial glucose level in blood resulting in a decline of insulin level, potentially reduces the activity of HMG-Co AR.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"How the Human Body Obtains Cholesterol." 123HelpMe.com. 28 Feb 2020
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=365627>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Different Types Of Cholesterol And Ldl Cholesterol Essay

- There are two different types of cholesterol in the human body; LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. LDL, also called low-density lipoprotein and the “bad” cholesterol, is the primary cholesterol transporter responsible for moving cholesterol in the human body after it has been manufactured in the liver. it transports cholesterol to the arteries, but too much of it can result in build up in the artery walls resulting in plaque. This leads to atherosclerosis, clogged arteries and obstruction of blood flow, therefore causing heart attack and stroke....   [tags: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis]

Research Papers
1035 words (3 pages)

How Cholesterol And How It Works Essay

- Honey Nut Cheerios claims that their product can help to lower the cholesterol. Before starting the argument about lowering the cholesterol, we have to know what is cholesterol and how it works. Cholesterol is a waxy fat, which can be found in every cell of the body. Our body needs cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help to digest foods. There are two kinds of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol throughout our body, which are low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL)....   [tags: Cholesterol, Nutrition, Atherosclerosis]

Research Papers
787 words (2.2 pages)

Cholesterol : A Type Of Fat Found Essay

- Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Triglycerides are calories that your body doesn 't need to use right away when you eat and are stored in your fat cells. You may have high triglycerides if you eat more calories than you burn. Normal triglycerides are less than 150 milligrams per deciliter (Staff, 2015). Cholesterol is also a type of fat found in your blood. It helps the function of our bodies. LDL and HDL are types of cholesterol. Low density cholesterol (LDL) is known as the "bad" cholesterol....   [tags: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis]

Research Papers
1026 words (2.9 pages)

Essay on The Effects of Bad Cholesterol on the Body

- Almost everybody knows the negative effects bad cholesterol has on the body. Bad cholesterol has to do with low-density lipoprotein’s molecular transport deposits that thicken in the walls of the arteries hindering the flawless passage of blood affecting the atherogenic status of the arterial walls. But not everybody fully appreciates the important role cholesterol plays in the body. This non-soluble, waxy substance is essential to aid in the building of membranes, the manufacture of bile, strengthening of cell walls and nerve sheaths, and in the production of hormones....   [tags: healthy eating habits and excercise routines]

Research Papers
576 words (1.6 pages)

The Effects of LSD On the Human Body Essay

- The many different illegal drugs around the world can all have harmful effects to the human body, but that does not stop many people from using them. Some people will do anything they can to get ahold of these dangerous drugs. Within the many different illegal drugs, there are a certain kind of drugs called hallucinogens. Hallucinogens are a class of drugs that cause hallucinations—profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality. The most common hallucinogen is called Lysergic acid, more commonly referred to as “LSD” or just simply “acid”....   [tags: Illegal Drugs, Harmful Effects, Human Body]

Research Papers
859 words (2.5 pages)

Medical Advancement And Its Effects On The Human Body Essay

- Today’s medical advancement has benefited many people in multiple ways. Plenty of lives have been saved because of our wonderful doctors and advanced medical treatments; there is no doubt about that. Now, think about the lives that have suffered because of doctors habitual practices of prescribing pharmaceutical medication. An umpteen amount of United States citizens have deteriorated under the wrath of pharmaceutical drugs. What many people do not understand is this simple fact: healthy food can help any physical, mental, and social ailment affecting the human body....   [tags: Nutrition, Human body, Health, Food]

Research Papers
974 words (2.8 pages)

The Human Body Through The Rest Of My Career Essays

- Ever since I was a young child, I wanted to be a doctor. Some of my reasoning has changed, or factors have been added on, but I still overall want to help others, and pursue in the career path in which I find a great amount of of interest in the human body. Everything about the human body is intricate, intriguing, and awesome. I find the human brain one of the most interesting things as we still do not understand some things about it still. Learning about neuroscience currently in my last year of high school has been by far the most interesting and enjoyable subject next to biology, and it only makes me want to continue this learning and apply neurology to my career....   [tags: Physician, Medicine, High school, Human body]

Research Papers
702 words (2 pages)

The Anatomy Of The Human Body Essay

- What is obesity. To answer this question, one has to understand the anatomy of the human body. Each age has a body mass index that is acceptable by most health regulatory agencies as a healthy weight. There are a lot of other things to consider; including ones height, gender, and sometimes ethnicity. When a person falls below this weight bracket, they are considered underweight. In most case, this can be fixed with good nutrition and hygiene. When a person, however is above the weight bracket, it’s tedious to control....   [tags: Obesity, Nutrition, Body mass index]

Research Papers
1118 words (3.2 pages)

What Cholesterol Is and How To Control It Essay

- What Cholesterol Is and How To Control It We have all heard about cholesterol in the news. Cholesterol affects the health of everyone in the world. In order to put our cholesterol levels into equilibrium you first must know what cholesterol is. Cholesterol is a lipid, a soft, fat like substance that in reasonable amounts is crucial in maintaining good health. Cholesterol serves numerous functions imperative to the survival of the human body....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
637 words (1.8 pages)

Cholesterol Essay examples

- Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the bloodstream and in all your body's cells. It's normal to have cholesterol. It's an important part of a healthy body because it's used for producing cell membranes and some hormones, and serves other needed bodily functions. But too high a level of cholesterol in the blood is a major risk for coronary heart disease, which leads to heart attack. It's also a risk factor for stroke. Hypercholesterolemia is the term for high levels of blood cholesterol....   [tags: essays research papers]

Research Papers
2430 words (6.9 pages)

Consequently, hepatic cholesterol synthesis is reduced. However, the insulin activity on cholesterol synthesis is complex (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Lundin, Zhang, Lairon, Tidehag, Aman, Adlercreutz and Hallmans (2004) argueed that low insulin level indeed leads to a reduction of cholesterol level, but this consequence is happened with the combination of enhanced BS excretion. As insulin affects so many dietary responses, it is hard to determine its exact role in cholesterol controlling reactions.
Cholesterol level is also regulated by SDF fermentation products (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). SDF neither digested or absorbed by small intestine, it undergoes fermentation by anaerobic reaction in the caecum and colon. The products of fermentation are short chain fatty acids such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Butyrate is used by the epithelial call of colon as their primary energy source, whereas acetate and propionate are partially absorbed into the hepatic portal vein. Propionate is known to be able to inhibit hepatic cholesterol metabolism thus decrease cholesterol level (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). More than one mechanism is involved in the reaction. They include the reduction of HMG-Co AR activity and the inhibition of acetyl-Co A reductase which catalyses the synthesis of acetyl-Co A from acetate. No matter these mechanisms work alone or work together, they make propionate intervenes in glycolysis, gluconeogenosis and ketogenosis activities in the liver (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). The role of propionate in blood cholesterol reduction has been tested in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro study, propionate is injected in isolated rat liver cell at different concentrations. In the study, cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver cell is decreased with increase of propionate concentration. However, the in vivo test does not show specific relation between propionate intake and cholesterol reduction. In the in study, rats were fed propionates having no change in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, there is no plenty evidences show the effect of short chain fatty acids on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in human body. Results from existing studies are inconsistent, further human study are needed to understand the role of short chain fatty acids in human cholesterol metabolism (Gunness & Gidley, 2010).
Even if there is enough evidence show soluble dietary fibre fermentation products reduce hepatic cholesterol synthesis, it is not likely to be the major mechanism. This is because SDF fermentation occurs irrespective of molecular size of polysaccharides, whereas cholesterol-lowering effects are associated with molecular size (Gunness & Gidley, 2010).
In summary, there are three potential mechanisms of SDF are involved in cholesterol metabolism. First, SDF is able to decrease the re-absorption of bile salt. Bile salts depletion in liver cause cholesterol quickly catabolized to replenish bile salts, thus cholesterol level in body is decreased. Second, SDF slow down glucose absorption and result in decline of insulin level, potentially reduces the activity of HMG-Co AR. Third, SDF fermentation product propionate reduces hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In conclusion, consume soluble dietary fibre potentially reduce blood cholesterol level. High blood cholesterol is a main cause of cardiovascular disease, so fibre has benefits to reduce the risk of having cardiovascular disease.



Return to 123HelpMe.com