Hobbes’s exclusive focus in on political power. He believed that the principle of human self-motion was desire. Essentially, he argues that there are two basic principles of voluntary action. The fist he called appetites. Hobbes argues that the appetites are attractions to motion or to what enables motion. The second principle of self-motion Hobbes called aversions. Aversions are repulsions from rest or from what least to rest. Hobbes categorized good as any object of appetite and evil as any object of aversion. For Hobbes, death was the worst of all evils because it was the end of all motion. Thus, the first principle of Hobbes’s political theory is that people fear death.
John Locke does support the social contract theory. He believed that the social contract obliges government to carry out the will of the majority. The government is established only as a definite way of carrying out the will of the majority and thus securing the common good of the community. Locke also stated that the social contract depends upon the consent of the governed. “But to conclude, Reason being plain on our side, that Men are naturally free, and the Examples of History shewing, that the Governments of the World, that were b...
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...of good and evil. This was unfortunate to say the least in Nietzsche’s mind. Spurred by a deep hatred of aristocratic ways they could not emulate, the masses of humanity, often supported by religious leaders, indulged in a revenge-motivated negation of the qualities of an aristocratic life. He saw things, “the good” of the good-evil distinction had emphasized equality, selflessness, meekness, humility, and other qualities of weakness. It had criticized the noble, aristocratic qualities. Qualities like self-assertion, daring, and desire for conquest were deemed as evil. The prevalence of this concept of evil is responsible for weakness and mediocrity among those in dominant positions. It has annihilated the qualities that are essential for democracy.
Downs, Jennifer. "Chapter 1 – A Brief History of Ethics." A Brief History of Ethics. 2012. Web. 02 May 2016.
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