This chapter will depict the traits of hegemonic masculinity, by delineating first of all the key terms ‘gender’ and ‘hegemony’. As Bradley states, gender is an artificial social construct, which is asymmetrical and hierarchal, “it is a set of social arrangements determining how women and men live,” behave, or work, “and a way of thinking which divides people into two categories (or sometimes more) social categories”; it determines the relations between man and woman, it is not fixed but subject to fluctuation in time (history) or cultures (Bradley, 2013). The next essential key term is Hegemony, its etymology refers to the Gramscian coined term that explains: “the dominance of one group, nation, or culture over another, hegemony refers to relationships between classes. For Gramsci, hegemonic control is not maintained merely by force or the threat of force, but by consent...
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...ing to escape this strict gender binary, are emerging in Japan, since stable employment and financial affluence are increasingly unavailable. The technologically obsessed otaku (geek cool) exemplifies such alternative masculinity, who is unmarried and dedicate his spare time reading manga and playing videogames (Charlebois, 2014).
In conclusion, even with the presence of these counter masculinities and femininities, hegemonic masculinities and femininities still have their grip on gendered roles and society. They shift over time precisely in response to challenges like modernity and resistance, to sustain patriarchal power (Charlebois, 2014).As this Essay shows, Hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity are crucial in determining social values, roles and gendered behaviours, and these notions are reinforced and perpetrated also by the ‘oppressed’ class (women).
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