# Graham's Law

Length: 619 words (1.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

#### Essay Preview

In chemistry and in physics, the movement of particles becomes very important. One way in which particles move is through effusion. The formula for the rate of effusion of gas molecules was developed by a chemist by the name of Thomas Graham in the 19th century.

December 21, 1805�September 16, 1869.

Thomas Graham was born in December of 1805 in Glasgow, Scotland. His father was a workman who desired that his son enter the Church of Scotland. However, Graham became a student at the University of Glasgow in 1819, where he became interested in the field of chemistry. He left the university in 1826 and went off to be a professor of chemistry at several universities, two of which were the Royal College of Science and Technology and the University of London.

In 1841, he founded the Chemical Society of London, of which he was the first president. His study in the field of colloids (a type of homogenous mixture) led to the discovery of dialysis and his earning of the name �the father of colloid chemistry.�

Another of Graham�s accomplishments was in his study of diffusion and effusion of gases. His formula for the effusion of gases even carries his name; it is called Graham�s Law.

Graham�s Law

�Physics. The flow of a gas through a small orifice at such a density that the mean distance between the molecules is large compared with the diameter of the orifice� (�effusion�).

In other words, effusion is the flow of individual gas molecules through a hole that is smaller than the mean free path, which is �the average distance [a] particle travels between collisions with other particles� (�Mean free path�). This means that in effusing through the hole the gas molecules do not collide with one another.
ef�fu�sion �noun

One of the postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory states that average kinetic energy of gas particles depends solely on the temperature of the gas. Since this is the case, the kinetic energy of two gas molecules, hydrogen and oxygen for example, may be written as the following.

When simplified the equation becomes this.

Rearranging yields this equation.

And taking the square root of both sides gives us the following.

This formula is a simplified version of Graham�s Law which states �that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles� (�Graham�s Law�).

MLA Citation:
"Graham's Law." 123HelpMe.com. 31 Mar 2020
<https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=153472>.

## Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

## Alexander Graham Bell and The Invention of The Telephone Essay

- With the modernized world we live in today, it is crucial that people communicate on the go with friends, family, and business associates. It is estimated that next year, Americans will spend \$1.8 billion on mobile devices. They continue to be a growing part of our culture and are being relied on by 91% Americans to get them through the day. Alexander Graham Bell pioneered the way for all of the advancements we have seen thus far. Not only are we able to make and receive high quality calls wirelessly, we are able to take pictures, play music, play games, exchange videos, surf the web, and view social media....   [tags: biography, scientist, inventor]

Research Papers
666 words (1.9 pages)

## International Law And Human Rights Abuses Essay

- which fosters socially responsible companies committed to the development of society (Kemp, 2011; Kemp & Vanclay, 2013; Wettstein, 2009). Despite the volumes of documents from the United Nations discussing the responsibilities of states, international organizations, and global corporations; traditionally international law has played a very weak role in protecting human rights (Graham & Ngaire, 2006; Wheeler, 2015). Although governments have agreed to enforce international law by holding corporations accountable for human rights abuses, they have had difficulties because of the complex structure of the international legal system....   [tags: Human rights, Law, Multinational corporation]

Research Papers
1873 words (5.4 pages)

## Women During The Time Of The Law Code Of Hammurabi Essay

- Women during the time of the law Code of Hammurabi had few freedoms under the authority of a man. In the Code of Hammurabi, there is evidence of the standing or role of women in their society when compared to men. From the time period of the Mesopotamian people to a development of women in the Greek society there are changes to the freedoms of women due to the differences in culture and societal norms. Greek women evolved in their society to have more freedoms and access to the community, but they also experience set expectations of women....   [tags: Woman, Marriage, Gender, Law]

Research Papers
879 words (2.5 pages)

## Hannah Graham Case By Storm Essay

- The media has taken the Hannah Graham case by storm - it has gotten local, national, and even international coverage. For the past month, I have seen a new article about the case almost everyday. I watched it slowly go from local newspapers in Charlottesville that had been posted by friends who go to UVA who were hoping people would know of her whereabouts, to articles in CNN talking about how Jesse Matthew (the suspect) is a serial rapist and murderer. The case presents itself as a very intriguing case - completely Law and Order SVU worthy with all the twists and turns....   [tags: Crime, Murder, Mass media, News media]

Research Papers
2081 words (5.9 pages)

## Graham Vs. Connor Case Essay

- For awhile the findings of the Graham vs. Connor case were accepted and used to consider other cases of excessive force. However a different situation arose in Scott vs. Harris. The story goes that a sheriff, while monitoring traffic on a highway, spotted Victor Harris going past him at seventy-five miles per hour in a fifty-five miles per hour zone. Naturally, the sheriff went after Harris and a high speed chase ensued. Second deputy Scott joined in the chase and finally rammed Harris’ car to stop him....   [tags: Police, Police brutality, Crime, Police officer]

Research Papers
1749 words (5 pages)

## Alexander Graham Bell, Inventor of the Telephone Essay

- Alexander Graham Bell was a notable scientist and engineer that changed the world with his invention of the telephone. Without the telephone, everyone would not have a reliable communication device. Alexander Graham Bell is considered one of the most influential people in human history. Early Life ~ Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3rd, 1847 at his family home, 16 South Charlotte Street, in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was born to Professor Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace (nee Symonds)....   [tags: Inventor, Engineer, Scientist]

Research Papers
698 words (2 pages)

## Essay about The Power And The Glory By Graham Greene

- The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene It is the story-teller's task to elicit sympathy and a measure of understanding for those who lie outside the boundaries of State Approval. I. One day I gave The Power and the Glory to... a native of Mexico who had lived through the worst persecutions... She confessed that your descriptions were so vivid, your priest so real, that she found herself praying for him at Mass. I understand how she felt. Last year, on a trip through Mexico, I found myself peering into mud huts, through village streets, and across impassible mountain ranges, half-believing that I would glimpse a dim figure stumbling in the rain on his way to the border....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1745 words (5 pages)

## Essay on Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory

- Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory   In Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory, setting is essential in understanding the spiritual conquest of the main character. The story takes place in post-revolution Mexico of the nineteen-thirties, where Catholicism has been banned. The government has shut down all of the churches and established anti-Catholic laws, jealous of the rising power of the church, and nervous of the corrupt ways in which the church has been dealing with sin. The main character, a nameless "whiskey priest," hopelessly roams the desolate plains of southern Mexico, on the run from the law, as the only priest left who has not denounced his fatherhood....   [tags: essays research papers]

Research Papers
1504 words (4.3 pages)

## Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner Essay

- Social Darwinism is term that is used for application of biological concepts of Charles Darwin to sociology and political science. The goal of this paper is to introduce two most known social Darwinists – Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. Herbert Spencer is sometimes named as the founder of social Darwinism. However, labeling him as such is problematic. Spencer came with his concepts and with the term “survival of the fittest” before he got to know Darwin’s. His ideas are based on the theory of Lamarckian inheritance by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck....   [tags: biological concepts, evolutionary theories]

Research Papers
1402 words (4 pages)

## Essay about grahams gas law

- GAS LAWS KINETIC ENERGY/ GRAHAM’S LAW LAB Purpose: To observe how masses of atoms and molecules affect their rate of diffusion, and explain our observations in terms of mass, velocity, kinetic energy and temperature. Warm-up Question: 1. What is the definition of temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average Kinetic Energy of the particles composing a material. 2. What is the definition of diffusion. Diffusion is a spontaneous spreading of particles until they are uniformly distributed in their container....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1651 words (4.7 pages)

### Popular Essays

In chemistry textbooks the formula is commonly written as

where r indicates the rate of effusion of a gas and M indicates the molar mass of that gas.

�The derivation of Graham�s law from kinetic theory was considered a triumph of the theory and greatly strengthened confidence in its validity�

(Ebbing 210).

A Practical Application

The principle of effusion is used in the refining of fuel rods to be used in nuclear fission reactors. The fuel rods are primarily composed of uranium-238, which is not reactive. Only about .72% of the fuel rod is uranium-235, the isotope needed for fission. To concentrate U-235, uranium hexafluoride is allowed to gasify and effuse through porous membranes where the uranium hexafluoride contain U-235 moves faster (approximately 4% faster) than the molecules containing U-238, thereby providing the necessary concentration for fission to occur.

Works Cited

Ebbing, Darrel D. General Chemistry. Fifth Edition. Ed. Mark S. Wrighton. Boston: ����������� Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996.

"effusion." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).� 2007. http://dictionary.reference.com/

������ ����������� browse/effusion (13 Nov. 2007).

�Effusion.� Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effusion (13 Nov. 2007).

�Graham, Thomas.� Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/

���������������� article-9037612/Thomas-Graham (13 Nov. 2007).

�Graham�s Law.� Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham%27s_Law_of_

���������������� Effusion (13 Nov. 2007).

�Mean free path.� Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean_free_path (13 Nov.

���������������� 2007).

The Kinetic Molecular Theory. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/

���������������� bp/ch4/kinetic4.html (9 Oct. 2007).

�Thomas Graham (chemist).� Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Graham_

���������������� (chemist) (9 Oct. 2007).