Critical Review #1
September 26, 2014
Garamond and Baskerville: Typography as Art
The advent of the moveable type by Johan Gutenberg in 1455 marked the first step towards transforming Western civilization from a predominantly illiterate culture into one of universal literacy. The rapid spread of the printed word brought new ideas and philosophies that brought Europe into the modern world. Printing with moveable type served as the catalyst for the Renaissance, Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. Simply put, it could be argued that typography is the most important inventions in Western Civilization’s history. (Meggs, 68)
A typographer is one who prints using small movable wooden or metal pieces that have alphabet characters on them. Johan Gutenberg may have created typography, however it took several generations of typographers to perfect his craft. Claude Garamond and John Baskerville are two typographers that have advanced the art of typography. (Macmillan, 6) This paper will be discussing the life and times of these type designers and how their innovations pushed typography towards the dynamic art form it is today.
Claude Garamond (1480-1561) was a French type founder at the leading edge of the French Renaissance. He trained as a type designer under the Estienne family. The Estiennes were the dominant force in French printing during the 16th century. Their collaboration with Garamond along with the woodblock illustrations of Geoffrey Tory was instrumental in creating the first known international style for book design. (Meggs, 113) The French style, as it is called, replaced the old blocky Gothic book aesthetic in favor of a lighter more open design that focuse...
... middle of paper ...
...c ideals of the Enlightenment. Together these two men link all of the major innovations in typography since Gutenberg’s letterpress. Even though their eras were guided by starkly contrasting philosophical ideologies they had one very important thing in common. They both had the desire to elevate the art of typographic letterform to high art. The fact that their work is still relevant today clearly illustrates that they have achieved this goal.
Meggs, Philip, and Alston Purvis. Meggs History of Graphic Design. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2012. Print
Dodd. From Gutenberg to Opentype. North America: Hartley and Mark Publisher’s, Inc, 2006. Print
“Claude Garamond” 23 September 2014. http://linotype.com/
”Baskerville” 23 September 2014. http://myfont.com/
Macmillan. ”An A_Z OF Type Designers. North America: Yale University Press. 2006.Print.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Considered one of the most influential typographers in history, John Baskerville made a significant mark on the world of print and type founding. Although considered a failure at printing during his lifetime he produced some of the works we look to today when we speak of the development of the typography and printing fields. An influence to other well-known typographers such as Bodoni and Didot and printers such as Benjamin Franklin, Baskervilles’ works met with hostility in the English Isles. Baskerville was more than a typographer; he was an artist, printer and stonecutter.... [tags: Printing, Typography Japanning]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- The literature relevant to typography is diverse and often describes the evolution of typography. This chapter provides a summary of those topics considered to be the most relevant to the research. It begins with a discussion of exploring typography and the consumer perceptions of the art. This is followed by the clarification of brand identity and the importance of it in today’s business environment. The merging of how typography plays a role in brand identity is next. Finally, there is an explanation of Generation-Y and how the former concepts of typography and brand identity are relevant.... [tags: arraging of type, printing techniques]
1022 words (2.9 pages)
- Introduction to Typography Typography is all around us and we use it everyday to aid us in communication. It is essential to know the basics about typography and the different types of typography before it is discussed in the terms of ‘typography in society’. The basics of typography are: the different type families, and some technical terms which are imperative when discussing the technical and symbolic aspects of typefaces and letter forms. Type Families Roman Roman is the standard style of typeface.... [tags: Typography]
3993 words (11.4 pages)
- Claude Garamond (1480-1561) was a French type designer, punch cutter and publisher considered by many to be one of the best type designers of the 16th century. The story of his typeface shows how murky the waters can get regarding type history since meticulous records were not kept back then. Garamond was born in 1480 in Paris but little is known about his childhood. In 1520 he trained as a punch cutter in Paris under engraver Geoffrey Tory. Tory was interested in philosophy and experimentation in printing methods and admired the letterforms of Ancient Greece.... [tags: Typography, Typeface, Design, Graphic design]
750 words (2.1 pages)
- Reading and Typography Reading is unavoidable. Students read textbooks; fathers read newspapers; engineers read manuals; technicians read webpages; politicians read bills; Christians read the Bible, and the list goes on. Everyone reads something. Seeing, perceiving, and recognizing lines and dots as a form of language is a process that is extremely complicated yet necessary. Scientists have researched many aspects of the visual reading process, and one of the most immediately applicable areas of concern is in the field of typography.... [tags: Typography Reading Research Papers]
1875 words (5.4 pages)
- ... Those skills that he learned throughout the years gave him an advantage in engraving typography. William engraved typefaces for the New Testament and punched font for Arabic typography (Ball 113). His roman typeface was an instant success and set an example for beauty and readability for all later type. The typeface that inspired William the most was Garamond created by Claude Garamond (Ball 274). William’s typeface became very similar to Garamond but more improved. According to Ball, “This is a fine specimen of the type design which, descending through two hundred years of French and Dutch printing, ultimately became a pattern for William Caslon to follow,” (291).... [tags: type face, printed word]
1995 words (5.7 pages)
- Like most people, typography is a focus in graphic design that most people overlook or don’t think anything of. Even though it’s seen every single day in multiple ways, people still forget that it’s considered an art of its own. Every single day we see typeface in multiple ways. Typography is one of the most influential art forms out in the world to date yet somehow it goes unnoticed. Max Miedinger, Adrian Frutiger, John Baskerville, and Matthew Carter are some of the most influential and famous photographers in history.... [tags: photographers, graphic design]
661 words (1.9 pages)
- One of the most important aspects of graphic design is typography. Typography plays a huge role in not only its basic function of communication, but also as a visual design element that can easily make or break a work. Knowing this, I strive to be very strong typographically. An artist that I take typographical inspiration from is Michael Bierut, who happens to be terrific with typography. Bierut graduated from the Cincinnati College of Design, Architecture, Art and Planning in 1980. Upon graduating, he went on to work for Vignelli Associates.... [tags: Graphic Design]
911 words (2.6 pages)
- Illegal Typography Enter TAKI 183, a kid that lives on 183rd street in the Washington Heights area of Manhattan. The number means just that, TAKI lives on 183rd street, therefore he chose his number street as a sign of location, as a base saying " yo' kid I'm from 183rd ". TAKI works as a messenger, going through all 5 boroughs of the city. When he travels he writes his name on all of the stations that he came upon, he was "up" (name being written everywhere). Which is an important part of graffiti, but this objective does not have any importance at this time.... [tags: Graffiti Crime Papers]
2520 words (7.2 pages)
- The designer that I have decided to compare my work to is named David Bailey. He works for Mount Pleasant, which is an illustration/design firm operated out of Manchester, England. Bailey creates posters, album artwork, comics, and personal work (http://www.itsmountpleasant.com/). The poster was created for the Melvins, a punk band originating during the mid-1980s (http://www.themelvins.net/atb.shtml), and their European tour in 2008. He says that he made the letters look slimy because he thought the Melvins sounded like slime (Fingerprint).... [tags: Art]
687 words (2 pages)