Fluid and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State in the Emergency Department

Fluid and Electrolyte Management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State in the Emergency Department

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Fluid and electrolyte management in Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic state in the emergency department

Diabetes Mellitus is a growing issue for health care providers internationally. The World Health organization estimated in 2013 there were 347 Million diabetics worldwide, predicting that Diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030 (WHO, 2013). In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes Mellitus, factors such as poor compliance with diet and medication, infection, acute medical or surgical illness or trauma can lead to poor glycaemic control, precipitating a hyperglycaemic emergency such as Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) (Scobie & Samaras, 2009). In Type 2 Diabetes, another equally dangerous complication can occur called Hyperosmolar, hyperglycaemic state (HHS) (Dunning, 2009). Both DKA and HHS are characterized by dehydration resulting from osmotic diuresis (Kisiel & Marsons 2009), often compounded by the patient already being in a dehydrated state due to the underlying cause (Del Garcia-Pascual & Kidby, 2012). It is therefore imperative that when a patient presents to an emergency department, rehydration and electrolyte replacement forms an integral component of treatment. Monash Health has developed protocols to treat DKA and HHS, a large part of which focus on rehydration and electrolyte management. This review will discuss the mechanisms of Dehydration in DKA and HHS, the importance of an effective rehydration and electrolyte management in both conditions; examine the differences between DKA and HHS in terms of onset, volume deficit and electrolyte changes, and compare best practice recommendations with the policies currently adopted by Monash Health.

What are DKA and HHS?
DKA an...

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Pamaiahgari, P. (2014). Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome: Clinician Information. The Joanna Briggs Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.Joannabriggs.org
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Scobie, I., & Samaras, K. (2009) Fast Facts: Diabetes Mellitus (3rd Ed.) Retrieved from: http://monash.worldcat.org/title/fast-facts-diabetes-mellitus/oclc/797833912&referer=brief_results
Venkatraman, R., & Singhi,S. C. (2006) Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome. Indian Journal of Paediactrics (Vol 73), 55-60. DOI: 10.1007 BF02758261
WHO (2013) Diabetes Fact sheet No. 312. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/

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