The phylogenic tree reveals the evolutionary history of animals simply. In this phylogenic tree, humans and other animals that are familiar to us are included in phylum chordates. Possessing a dorsal notochord or hollow nerve cord is the significant development of chordates. The nerve cord is a flexible structure and allows the body of the organism to extend. There are other important developments, too, such as metameric arrangement of organs and body regions, perforated pharynx, post-anal tail, large coelom, and ventral heart. These are more advance developments of phylum Chordates compare to the other phyla such as annelids, moluccas and so on. Chordates divide into three main clades such as cephalochordates, urochordates and vertebrates. The subphylum vertebrate shows even more advance development of structure of organisms. It is important to know more about vertebrata since human and other animals such as dogs, cows, birds, and the other most familiar animals are fallen into the subphylum vertebrates (Campbell et al. 2008).
The major development of vertebrata is the replacement of notochord by the segmented vertebrae and possession of cranium, which protect...
... middle of paper ...
...as Geckos have specific feet that help their locomotion proving the marvel of the nature.
Campbell N. A., Reece J. B., Cain M. L., Wasserman S. A., Minorsky P. V. and Jackson R. B.
2008. Biology. 8th ed. Person Benjamin Commings, San Francisco.
Sadava D., Hillis D. M., Heller H. C. and Berenbaum M. R. 2011. 9th ed. Life The Science of
Biology. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland.
Tian Y, Pesika N., Zeng H., Rosenberg K., Zhao B., McGuiggan P., Autumn K. and
Israelachvili J. 2006. Adhesion and Friction in Gecko Toe Attachment and Detachment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103: 19320-19325. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/30051298>.
Autumn K. and Peattie A. M. 2002. Mechanisms of Adhesion in Geckos. Integrative and
Comparative Biology. 42: 1081-1090.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Vitamins: Essential for Growth and Development A vitamin is an organic compound needed by organisms in tiny amounts as a required nutrient. This must be obtained from the diet as organisms cannot be produced this in sufficient quantities. The term does not include other vital nutrients such as essential fatty acids, dietary minerals or essential amino acids (which are generally needed in larger amounts than vitamins). Vitamins are categorized based on their chemical and biological activities and not on their structure.... [tags: Biochemical Functions, Types]
910 words (2.6 pages)
- If crops were affected by droughts, disease and insects, having destroyed many acres across America’s Midwest region, the use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) would not be beneficial in regenerating new crops. Genetically modifying foods (GMOs) “are plants or animals that have been genetically engineered with DNA from bacteria, viruses or other plants and animals that cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding” (nongmoproject.org). Most research done has concluded no positive benefits in using GMOs.... [tags: genetically modified organisms]
846 words (2.4 pages)
- Introduction According to scientists, one of the most extraordinary bursts of evolution ever known was the Cambrian Explosion. For most of the nearly 4 billion years that life has existed on Earth, evolution produced little beyond bacteria, plankton, and multi-celled algae. Then, about between 570 and 530 million years ago, another burst of diversification occurred. This stunning period is termed the "Cambrian explosion," taking the name of the geological age in which the earlier part occurred. A recent study revealed that life evolved during the Cambrian Period at a rate about five times faster than today.... [tags: Burst of Evolution, Diversification, Organisms]
975 words (2.8 pages)
- Functional genomics is an area of study within molecular biology which attempts to analyse genetic products, in order to understand the function and interaction of genes, and the proteins produced by them. It is a genome-wide method used under different environmental conditions and the DNA function can be deciphered through a combination of genes, proteins and transcripts. The new approach provides geneticists with the possible answers of understanding how genes interact with one another and analysing DNA sequences of organisms which are unique to biological systems.... [tags: molecular biology]
1972 words (5.6 pages)
- Osmoregulation is an example of an organism maintaining homeostasis. More specifically, osmoregulation involves an animal regulating osmotic pressure, or its fluid content. Brine shrimp, Artemia, use osmoregulation to regulate the saline levels of fluid within their body. Because brine shrimps live in seawater, an environment with a high saline concentration, they must actively excrete excess salt. Brine Shrimps use metepipodites as the location of the ion pump which secretes sodium. This is an active transport of ions because it is moving against the gradient, a higher salt content outside the body.... [tags: organisms maintaining homeostasis]
871 words (2.5 pages)
- Population regulation is a basic process related to most phenomena in ecology: regulation arises as a result of potentially stabilizing density-dependent processes, even when brought about by non-equilibrium mechanisms (Murdoch, 1994). No population continues to grow indefinitely. Specifically, populations that exhibit exponential growth eventually succumb to the limitations brought about by the environment. As a population’s density changes, a naturally-occurring series of interactions which are environmentally controlled form between members of the population, thus regulating the population size.... [tags: Growth, Development]
795 words (2.3 pages)
- ... And this is where we will automatically found the implication of the brain to teaching and learning Reading book: the instructional leader and the brain ( Margaret Glick, forwarded by Pat Wolfe) The brain major structure and function • The Human brain is an amazing and complicated organ. In our brain there are some compositions that have specific function; each of the 2 hemispheres specializes in certain ways of intelligent and dealing with the brain surrounding. • It is said that the cortex is the wrapping of the brain, it is where the composed of neurons exist, in our brain there is a structure that controls balances and movements this is called the cerebellum.... [tags: Structure, Function, Organ]
922 words (2.6 pages)
- The use of microalgae as a live food for feeding of aquatic organisms well documented by several researchers (Cho and et al., 1999; Zhu, et al., 1997; Luyen, et al., 2007; Rivero-Rodríguez, et al., 2007; Duerr, et al., 1998; Brown, et al., 1997). In mariculture, microalgae either directly support all growth stages of bivalves, and larval stages of crustaceans and fish or indirectly are fed to artemia or rotifers, which are then fed on to later larval/ juveniles stages of crustacean and fish larvae through providing essential nutrients and other growth promoting factors (Cho and et al., 1999).Therefore, the nutritional property of microalgae offered to feed aquatic animals is crucial especial... [tags: microalgae, aquatic organisms, animals, ]
633 words (1.8 pages)
- The importance of LMO Since human population has increased dramatically, the demand for food is increasing also to fulfil the myriad population. Moreover, climate changes caused the natural disasters like flood and drought to happen more often, resulting in uncontrollable disruption to crops and livestocks. Hence, to overcome these problems, scientists come out with a solution, Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) which is also known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). One of the intentions of LMOs is to overcome food crisis.... [tags: climate change, genetically modified organisms]
914 words (2.6 pages)
- Why the Structure and Function of Proteins is Essential to Living Organisms Proteins, along with carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acid make up all life on earth, and without any one of these macromolecules, life on earth would not be able to continue. Proteins consist of amino acids joined together via peptide bonds to form polypeptides. There are 20 natural amino acids without which proteins couldn't exist. COOH | H-C-R | NH 2 Above is the general structure of an amino acid, the R represents the variable group, which varies with each amino acid, and affects the properties and behaviour of each amino acid.... [tags: Papers]
1112 words (3.2 pages)