Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat, Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: Norton, 1999.
The Pacific War ended in 1945, after the atomic bombs hit Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On August 14, 1945, Japan surrendered. The country was defeated and left in devastation. Japan lost two and one half million soldiers and nearly one million civilians.1 Many of its cities and infrastructure had been destroyed, in addition to one quarter of its industrial base.2 The population was on the edge of starvation with nearly nine million people homeless.3 Unemployment levels were high, and a vast number of soldiers were demobilized returning home to Japan.4 In fact, the Japanese empire was gone and the people were terrified of occupation by their enemies.5 However, by September 1951, six years after the devastating war ended, the San Francisco Peace Treaty was signed and Japanese industry was prospering. Japan was welcomed as an ally of the US and stayed under their umbrella of protection in return for maintaining US naval bases in Japan.6 Control of their government was returned under a new democratic constitution. Within a brief period of six years, the American dominated Occupation of Japan led the way for dramatic recovery and prosperity. In fact, the Americans were the driving force behind reforming their enemy, rebuilding the Japanese economy and leading them to democracy. The American Occupation’s success at rebuilding Japan’s economy at a remarkable rate was a direct result of the American approach to Japanese reform permitting a balance between freedom and control and allowing gaps between policies and changing objectives.
The Fifteen-Year War was a time of great turmoil and uncertainty in Japan. Various facets of the country were tested and driven to their limits. During the occupation, race and gender began to evolve in ways that had not exactly be seen before. War had a tremendous impact on every part of the life of a Japanese citizen. Both men and women began to fill roles that were completely novel to them. Race became a part of the definition of who people were. As the war progressed and American troops landed on Japanese soil for occupation, more drastic changes occurred. Economic hardship and rations befell the people of the Land of the Rising Sun. Prostitution began to rear its ugly head and rape transpired. Through memory, research, and vivid creativity, the evolution of Japan during the Fifteen-Year War can be analyzed with great scrutiny.
finally pushed into action by the Japanese. In this essay we will take a closer look at the events
Since its establishment in 1775, the term “freedom” has been the rallying cry of the people of the United States; however, “freedom” was not by definition equal to all persons of the United States. We have made much progress in the area of freedom but one could argue that the term “freedom” was only for the white male/female population of the United States. We made our first step with Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, then with the Progressive Era and women’s rights, however, anyone who was not of American or “white” decent, have been persecuted in one way or another. In 1942 President Roosevelt, under the negative influence of a fear of the general population and much of his adversaries signed the executive order, which ordered the relocation of about 120,000 Japanese-American citizens to internment camps in order to “protect” our country from its “enemies.”
The decision to imprison Japanese Americans was a popular one in 1942. It was supported not only by the government, but it was also called for by the press and the people. In the wake of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, Japan was the enemy. Many Americans believed that people of Japanese Ancestry were potential spies and saboteurs, intent on helping their mother country to win World War II.
December 7th, 1941 was a day in history that would be remembered by all. The day that the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor will stay in our minds for as long as we live. After the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor the Americans had learned that there was a spy that enabled the Japanese to get such precise targeting on Pearl Harbor and destroy many of the ships. After the report of a spy being in Hawaii the United States decided that they would not take any chances and had made a suggestion of eliminating all of the Japanese Americans in the United States. Their acts were very similar to those of Hitler's, but without all of the murders.
Japanese Americans internment
Just a moment before the final call for flight Belgrade-London-Los Angeles, my girlfriend gave me a wrapped gift and she asked me not to open it before I arrive to my final destination. I couldn’t wait so long and I opened it just after I arrived in London. It was the Easy English dictionary with dedication on the first page. She wished me the best with the quote:
“All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
The Japanese Internment
Throughout history, Canada has relatively been a supporter of multiculturalism. In the past Canada has had very few racial conflict, although there has been one incident which has had quite a controversial effect about human rights violations and discrimination. This thorn in Canada's side is the Japanese Internment which took place during the second world war.
The Japanese Internment took place between the years of 1941 and 1949.
After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States was filled with panic. Along the Pacific coast of the U.S., where residents feared more Japanese attacks on their cities, homes, and businesses, this feeling was especially great. During the time preceding World War II, there were approximately 112,000 persons of Japanese descent living in California, Arizona, and coastal Oregon and Washington. These immigrants traveled to American hoping to be free, acquire jobs, and for some a chance to start a new life. Some immigrants worked in mines, others helped to develop the United States Railroad, many were fishermen, farmers, and some agricultural laborers.