Effects of fantasy contexts on children’s learning and motivation: Making learning more fun. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(4), 625-633.
Relatedness is a sense of being connected to valuable people and one’s society; this attachment to others establishes a base for exploring one’s environment. Fulfillment of these needs at all developmental stages relates to a child’s positive emotional affect and results in natural curiosity, desire for learning, and self-controlled behavior. According to researchers Browder, Wood, Test, Karvonen, and Algozzine, “individuals who scored higher on a measure of self-determination than their peers had more positive adult outcomes” (2004, p. 233). Failure to fulfill these needs in children results in poor outcomes, such as reduced engagement, inferior performance, higher dropout rates, difficult behaviors, apathy, distress, and poorer assimilation within social groups (Poulsen, Rodger, & Ziviani, 2006, p. 79; Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 68; Veronneau, Koestner, & Abela, 2005, p. 280; Wehmeyer, 2004). As children grow and develop, their actions become more self-directed and less subject to outside regulation by others (Poulsen, et al., 2006, p.... ... middle of paper ... ...g lesson plans for promoting self-determination.
Young children's understanding of the fantasy/reality distinction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 293-310. Woolley, J. D. & Cox, V. (2007). Development of beliefs about storybook reality. Developmental Science, 10 (5), 681-693. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00612.x
Introduction Many children experience a common phenomenon known as the imaginary companion. This usually manifests itself in the creation of an invisible person that they engage in an active relationship with. While many parents are confused about how to approach and relate to their child and their child’s imaginary companion they should be assured that the process is quite normal. Imaginary companions are not a sign of mental illness but a normal healthy part of a child’s development (Taylor, 1999). Historical View of Imaginary Companions Early research on imaginary companions was deficit focused in nature Some of the earliest research around the beginning of the 1900’s viewed it as a sign of a psychological disorder (Vostrovsky, 1895).
“Erikson stressed the importance of the life- rehearsal element in fantasy play, suggesting that it helps children come to terms with social issues such as loneliness, failure and disappointment” (Curtis & O’Hagan 2003). These problems exist in everyday li... ... middle of paper ... ...). The importance of play in adulthood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child.53. 51-64 Batra, S. (Jul2013).
Traditionally, children who were perceived to be highly imaginative and involved in pretend play were believed to be at risk for developing mental disorders like schizophrenia (Sperling, 1954). However, in recent years, these types of behaviours and thinking, for instance, having an imaginary companion, have become accepted as normal aspects of development in children (Taylor, 1999). Research has also indicated an individual difference in children’s engagement in fantasy, some are more reality focused and others more fantasy oriented. Fantasy orientation (FO) has been described as “an individual’s tendency to think and play in a fantastical realm” (Sharon & Woolley, 2004; Singer & Singer, 1990; Taylor, Cartwright & Carlson, 1993). It is suggested to be an individual difference that is stable throughout childhood and sometimes even progresses into adulthood, for instance highly fantasy oriented children tend to go into careers that entail creativity as adults such as those involving art, theatre and writing.
The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents’ attempts to control and socialize their children (Darling, 1999). Two points are critical in understanding this definition. First, parenting style is meant to descri... ... middle of paper ... ...2006). Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(1), 47-58. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00119.x Vieno, A., Nation, M., Pastore, M., & Santinello, M. (2009).
Critique of Journal Articles Pretend Play, Creativity, and Emotion Regulation In Children Hoffmann and Russ (2012) examined the relationships between pretend play, creativity, emotion regulation, and executive functioning. The researchers suggested that during pretend play, the children exhibited cognitive, affective, and interpersonal processes. Studies have shown that pretend play is associated to being creative, in that, children who are more imaginative and affective during pretend play are also divergent thinkers. To further explore this relationship, the researchers recruited students from a private all-girls school to participate in this study (Hoffmann & Russ, 2012). Participants were administered several measures to assess their capacity to exhibit cognitive and affective play processes.
“Cinderilla" and “Hansel and Grethel" engage with the concept of childhood imagination as a reflection of children’s innocence. Therefore, fairytales allow children to see themselves as a hero because of the imaginary world created. Children seek an ideal place where they can escape from their trouble homes. As a result, they go on
Journal of Psychology, 149(4), 449-463. doi: 10.1080/00223980209604171 Pérusse, R. V. (2009). Group counseling in the schools. Psychology In The Schools, 46(3), 225-231. http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/homeless-and-runaway-youth.aspx Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2), 163-172, doi: 10.1093/sw/swt003