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cancer

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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide as it can develop in almost any organ or tissue. Significant advances in understanding the cellular basis of cancer and the underlying biological mechanisms of tumour has been vastly improved in the recent years (Jiang et al. 1994). Cancer is a genetic disease which requires series of mutation during cell division to develop, it has characteristics which can be associated with their ability to grow and divide abnormal cells uncontrollable while in the mean time invade and cause nearby blood vessels to serve its need. Even though many people are affected by cancer today, the abilities which cancer cells own make it hard to find single effective treatment for cancer. The focus of research now lies on developing drugs which target cancer cells in the hope to cure cancer once and for all.
There have been extraordinary progresses in identifying cancer at the cellular level and the question of how cancer cells develop are no longer a secret. Although there are many different types of cancer and almost every tissue can turn into malignancies, the basic processes of how cancer arises are very similar. While normal body cells follow the orderly path of cell cycle and only reproduce when instructed to do so, cancer cells violate the schedule and ignore instructions, it fails to follow the orderly enzymatic reaction which is responsible for the deletion of cells with damaged DNA (Kerr et al. 1994). Cancer cells enter cell cycle repeatedly until it will eventually disrupt the function of tissues and organs that are essential to the organism (Weinberg 1996). Not all types of cancer are fatal, benign cancer is a type of cancer which stays in one location only, in another word it will not m...

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...r is hard to cure due to its ability to metastasis and avoid apoptosis due to mutation occurs in the genes during mitosis, especially on oncogen and tumour suppressor gene. Oncogen contribute to cancer cells by encouraging cells to grow and divide excessively while tumour suppressor genes inhibit apoptosis. As all cells on Earth require oxygen, nutrients and the ability to remove waste products to survive and develop, it seems possible to develop anti-cancer drugs which will target at those blood vessels which supply nutrients to tumour cells. Even though this method is providing some promising results, there is no significant improvement in the overall survival of the organism in the long term. Nevertheless, the understanding of cellular basis of cancer cells gain from numerous researches have certainly help in developing new and effective treatment for cancer.
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