Cancer is a process in which the cell starts to grow without control or a stop mechanism. There are different types of cancers but all start with an abnormal cell growth that is out of control (Fox, 2009). Cancer cell growth is very different from that of a normal healthy cell. These cells do not die and instead just continue to generate and create more abnormal cells. These cells are also unique in that they will invade and conquer other cells (Fox 2009).
These oncogenes cause cancer because they do not allow the cells to self destruct or become epistatic. There have been several research projects which have been testing epistatis. Transfecting DNA To perform the experiments for this re... ... middle of paper ... ...wth of both normal and malignant cells. The limited research that has been performed using these cells has yielded contradictory results: some results say that the alpha5beta1 integrins destroy cancer cells, other results have shown that cell division and other necessary cell functions have been encouraged by the integrin. But the research has predominantly shown that the results of the expression of alpha5beta1 integrins yield beneficial results in terms of cancer tumor reduction.
In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired, and the cell doesn’t die like it should. Instead, the cell goes on making new cells that the body doesn’t need. These new cells all have the same abnormal DNA as the first cell does. (American Cancer Society, 2012) The purpose of this paper is to describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer, complications of cancer, the side effects of the cancer treatment, and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects of cancer. Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer Cancer staging “…describes the severity of a person’s cancer based on the size and/or extent (reach) of the original (primary) tumor and whether or not cancer has spread in the body.” Staging allows doctors and other medical professionals to accurately understand how far along the patient is in the illness and what treatment, medication, and c... ... middle of paper ... ... a healthy lifestyle, which can also be used to treat the physical effects of cancer.
The cancer stem cell theory hypothesizes that tumors or cancers arise from mutations or epigenetic changes in normal stem cells. These mutated or genetically altered stem cells possess the properties of the normal stem cells such as the ability to self-renew, differentiate into any type of body cell, and resist apoptosis. Hence, the cancer stem cells (CSC) are named so. It is also suggested that because of the above-mentioned properties of the cancer stem cells, the current anti-cancer therapies are not entirely successful (Gil et al, 2008). Despite surgery and other therapies, even if very few of these cancer stem cells survive, they can continue to act as a source for more tumors, even though the therapies eliminate all visible signs of cancer.
Malignant tumors are what cancer really is. These tumors invade neighboring body tissues and continue to grow and cause more issues (McKenzie, 2013). The main reason why cancer can be a very large problem is because the body’s immune system doesn’t identify the mutated cancer cells as a potential threat to the body because the cancer cells are still body cells (NCI). This leads to the immune systems limited response to killing cancer cells (NCI). Lung cancer is a more common form of cancer because it makes up at least 14% of all and cancer diagnosis and 228,190 adults in the United States are e... ... middle of paper ... ...s and Signs.”.
Victoria Luu 1235186 BME 80H – Human Genetics Research Paper The Mutation of the p53 Gene and Its Impact on Lung Cancer Cancer occurs when new cells are born to replace old cells but the old cells do not undergo apoptosis, as they normally should. Instead, the new cells come together to form tumors that can potentially become malignant, meaning they have the ability to chew through the basal lamina and enter the bloodstream to spread to new environments throughout the body. Cancer could also occur due to cell overproliferation because what normally controls the cell cycle and keeps cell division in check has either been mutated or been deleted (Dugdale, 2012). p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that prevents the cell cycle from advancing past the restriction point at the end of G1 phase when DNA damage is detected so that DNA damage repair machinery has time to fix the damage before the cell is able to proceed to S phase. If the damage is beyond repair, p53 sends the cell down the apoptotic pathway instead (Kimball, 2013).
These traditional treatments have many negative side effects. Therefore, increasingly, other treatments, such as hormonal therapy and targeted therapy are being used for certain cancers. Nanotechnology is a form of targeted therapy that destroys cancer tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissues and organs. Scientists are already using nanotechnology in early detection of elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors. But the real game changer will be when nanotechnology targets cancer tumors in treatment (11,13).
However, new experimental evidence indicates otherwise. As often happens in science the assumed or most obvious view is not always the correct one. In a study designed to investigate exactly how cancerous cells defeat the immune system, a collaborating group of scientists found some very interesting results. In a Nature Medicine journal article titled “Characterization of circulating T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens in melanoma patients” they discovered a phenomenon we have dubbed Dead Cells Walking. The first problem was to identify anti-melanoma T cells.
Most Patients treated with only Chemotherapy will reach remission at some point but eventually will die. However the development of new treatment where chemotherapy or radiotherapy are given in addition to Monoclonal Antibodies have a higher rate of success in defeating the cancer all together. Monoclonal Antibodies are laboratory engineered molecules that are engineered to attach to a specific protein that is found only in B-cell. The immune system task is to fight invaders, however it does not always recognize the cancer as a harmful invader and does not attack it. The Monoclonal Antibody are directed to attach to a specific part of the cancer, marking the cancer cell as harmful and making it easy for the immune system to identify it and destroy it.
More than 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime (1). This shows how important treating cancer is, in the best way possible. Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. Cancer cells have certain traits, they divide rapidly by stopping the dividing signals, they move to different organs, become immortal since no tumour suppressor gene to tell when the cell needs to die. In addition, cancerous cell also creates their own blood vessels for oxygen and nutrients which is essential for the growth of the cell and is also known as angiogenesis.