This paper examines the relationship between natural catastrophes and mass extinctions and their impact on vertebrate evolution. Natural catastrophes have a major influence on the likelihood of extinction. The largest mass extinctions are linked to these catastrophes and often reconstruct the biosphere. Therefore eliminate some species, while also allowing previously minor groups to survive and diversify. This involves extinction of certain groups based on certain parameters like body size and rate of life history.
Almost a quarter of the species present on land today might disappear by the year 2050. Underwater species also face a huge risk due to climate change. This is especially true for the species that are sensitive to warm temperatures. There are multiple components of climate change and are presumed to affect biodiversity on all levels – from organism to biome. At the most basic level, climate change will be able to reduce the genetic range of populations due to rapid migration and directional selection.
Global warming is happening. Do to increase in temperature, the polar ice is melting which is causing flooding. As we lose our coral reefs, it will cause an increase in flood on the cost, and reefs provide homes for many aquatic animals and plants. The sea is rising. By 2080 much of the houses on the coast will be flooded.
Genetic variations. · Extinct- disappearance of species after thorough searching (some extinction is natural) · At risk- in danger of becoming extinct · Endangered- close to extinction in the wild unless something is done the species could disappear altogether · Vulnerable- The step before endangered · Rare- few of a particular species remain , less serious category than endangered · Extinction can occur naturally because of climatic change which affects the vegetation on which animals depend. · MEGAFAUNA-large Australian mammals from the ice age · Aborigines 50000 yrs ago modified asia Australia bridge vegetation through burning it out resulting in dry arid landscapes. This also could have made extinct the megafauna. · In Aus since 1788 only 30% of the vegetation remains unmodified to osme degree.
Introduction When water evaporates from water storages it becomes a major issue that affects regions of agriculture in most lands leading to annual loss exceeding potentially to 40 percent and more of water storage. This water which is lost leads to reduction of productivity in agriculture affecting the environment adversely. Literature review has been developed on the same by various researchers in order to develop evaporation suppression techniques highlighting the merits and demerits of the same technique with reference to harm to environment, safety and health concerns (Winter 2011). Critique of Literature Review Australia lost most of its water stored in the natural resources through evaporation which grew the attention on conserving evaporation (Craig et al 2007). More than 7000 gallons of water loss is a big issue.
Environmental impacts will be discuss first. In recent years, many natural disasters had occurred such as drought, flooding, thawing of ice sheets, disappearing of mountain glaciers, ecology, etc (Kerr 2007: 188). Noted that global climate change causes the shift in biodiversity (Colwell, Brehm, Cardelus, Gilman, & Longino 2008: 258). According to Colwell, Brehm, Cardelus, Gilman, and Longino, increasing in global climate change has driven species like plants and insects to migrate or shift to a different environment that suit them better, especially species that lived in the tropic zone (2008: 259). Some notable species that are affected by global climate change are butterflies, corals, and plants which can lead to extinction (Kerr 2007: 188).
El Nino will continue to increase proportionaly to the Earth’s rising temperature and thus, reducing the world’s phytoplankton population; resulting in catastrophic ecological effects as the base of the ocean’s food chain continues to be destroyed. Winds affect upwelling. Winds that blow along the coasts of North and South America drag the water along with them. “The Earth’s rotation then deflects the resulting surface currents away from the coastlines.” (Wallace 11) Because the surface water moves away, colder, nutrient-rich water comes up from below and replaces the previous warm water, a phenomenon known as upwelling. (Wallace 11) Basically, the wind blows towards the equator and the rotation of the Earth pulls the water away from land similar to the way a cube of ice stays in one place as you rotate a glass of water.
Background Info When a species becomes endangered, it means that the species is being threatened with extinction. Since the beginning of time, numerous species have gone extinct due to naturally changing physical and biological conditions. Human factors such as pollution, commercial overexploitation, poaching and deforestation have all contributed to the increase in the rate of extinction of animal species. It is important to preserve endangered species since their extinction leads to an inequity in the food chain, which could lead to an imbalance in population. The extinction of animal species increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, hence worsening the greenhouse effect.
Climate change is already beginning to affect plants, animals and their role in the ecosystem. Ecosystems are very important as provides habitable conditions. Ecosystems are sensitive to the changes placed upon them whether it is natural or human related. According to Fletcher, “Studies shows that natural decreases in biodiversity are as potentially damaging as the negative impacts resulting from climate change, pollution and other major forms of environmental stress. Because natural stressors are ever present, the growth of negative impacts related to climate change and human population growth could cause increasing damage to ecosystems that are already stressed as a natural condition.” This suggests that natural stressors to global biodiversity will be greater than before as climate change grows.
Climate change will rapidly alter the lands and waters which we all depends upon for survival which will leave our children thus the future generation with a different world. In the time to come if not much is done for the case of climate change, There will be shortage of food and drinks, many new illnesses and diseases and some part of the world will become in appropriate for living things to live due to natural disaster. It can be that with the rapid Global warming and climate change, one-fourth of Earth’s species could be headed for extinction by the year 2050. Some of the most dangerous consequences and effects of climate change are listed here. 1) Higher Temperature During the 20th century both air and sea temperature has increased and causing several problems.