Women In Roman Society

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Throughout ancient civilizations, women were lower than men. In some civilizations like Mesopotamia society, women were below slaves. It is not shocking that they would still not be equal to men. In Roman society, women had more independence and people were more encouraging of women being educated in philosophy. In the Hans society, women did not have any freedom. They were required to follow what the men told them. By examining Gaius Musonius Rufus’ essay and Ban Zhao’s essay, the views of women were different. Woman in Roman society had more freedom and women in the Han’s society were required to fulfill her responsibilities. In roman society, the family was paterfamilias. The social structure was to be dominated by men, males held all the…show more content…
He believed that women should be educated in the same way as men. Duiker and Spielvogel included an excerpt Rufus book. In Rufus’ essay he says, “Since that is so, why is it appropriate for men to seek out and examine how they might live well, that is, to practice philosophy, but not women?” He began by saying we all have five sense, so how it is unfair that men are able to analyze the world but not women. In his essay he continues to discuss what duties a woman has. Then he discuss gender activities. He goes on to talk about how women are naturally weaker than men, so the responsibilities should be different. Rufus says, “Some tasks are more appropriate for one nature, others for the other. For that reason some jobs are called men 's work, and others women 's.” He says that spinning and household management is appropriate for women. In contrast, gymnastic and outdoor work is more suitable for men. Rufus says that men and women should both be educated but there are still boundaries of what is consider men and women responsibilities. Lastly he discusses how women can not be educated without philosophy. In Rofus’ essay he says, “My point is that women ought to be good and noble in their characters, and that philosophy is no other than the training for that nobility.” According to him, philosophy teaches nobility and is an aspect women should have. Rufus pushes for women to learn…show more content…
She is an aristocratic woman from the Hans empire who believes women should follow their duties set by society. One of a woman’s responsibilities is to be respectful. Zhao wrote, “Let her bear contempt; let her even endure when others speak or do evil to her.” Women are required to be respectful even if a man is doing or saying evil things. Zhao essay also discusses how women are subservient to men. She states, “They only know that wives must be controlled and that the husband 's authority must be maintained.” Men are supposed to control women and it is the woman’s responsibility to follow his orders. Lastly, she discusses womanly behaviors. She says the four womanly behaviors are “… womanly virtue, womanly speech, womanly appearance, and womanly work.” Women are required to be modest, use appropriate language, to maintain personal hygiene in order to look “womanly” and to make clothes or prepare

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