The last of the kings of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, was a dictator who opposed the people. Under the rule of the Etruscans Rome grew in importance and power. Great temples and impressive public works were built. Rome had become the largest and richest city in Italy. Period of Conquest It was only a tiny city-state, much like the city-states that were growing at the same time in Greece.
Unfortunately, democracy didn’t last and therefore this same factor was the major contribute to the failure of the great empire. Constant warfare and victory expanded the territory and established the power of Romans. The Roman Empire gained control over the centuries using all of its advantages, however was brought down by the misuse of its government system. The biggest advantage of Romans success was the location of their establishment. Italy is divided into eastern and western sides by Apennines mountains, which to the advantage are less rocky than the ones in Greece and therefore didn’t divide people into isolated communities, instead brought them together.
One of the early civilizations who challenged their government were the Romans. In 509 BCE the people of Rome created a new type of government: they called it the Roman Republic. Although many things started to be different, and the government was improving, women and slaves were not considered citizens of Rome. “They had no voice in government. Only adult free Roman men were citizens.” The people got tired of this and challenged their government.
“the division of Patricians and Plebeians remained a division between rich and poor”, the Patricians could hold more power, and join the senate. It was also only the Patricians who could hold higher offices like consulship. The Plebeians however, were the common people, or lower class, and could not hold any office except for the Assembly. Going back to the first point, The success of the Republic is based on the equality put in place by the Twelve Tables. The consul has overseeing rule, however the Assembly was in charge of choosing the consul, and the Plebeian tribunes could veto the consul.
New innovations included new beneficial laws. The last king of Rome was Tarquin the Proud. A harsh tyrant, he was driven from power in 509 B.C. The Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king. Instead, they established a republic the Latin phrase res publica, which means “public affairs.” A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
The Persians then marched to Athens for revenge. The Greeks defeated the Persian Navy at the battle of Salamis that same year proved to be turning point in the conflict and Xerxes withdrew most of his men in Asia. The finale battle of the Persian War was near Plataea in 479 B.C with Greeks winning. In 477 B.C, the Delian League was formed. The members were Greek city-states, who band together to protect themselves against future threats by the Persian Empire.
The tyrants contributed most in that they eliminated the presence of the aristocracy leaving each citizen to prove their worth by their service of the polis (84). Throughout this period, tyrants ruled their individual city-states, and allied themselves with other allies to prevent war (84). After the end of the dark ages, Polytheism arose as a central religion connecting Greek peoples (85). During this age, the polis was still apparent though differed tremendously between different states (87). Sparta and Athens, though powerful and influential Greek states were among these poleis and though they were perhaps, the most likely of the states to unite Greece both were unfit.
Furthermore, women were treated as citizens in Rome, but more like property in Greece (“Ancient Greece vs. Ancient Rome,” para. 5). In Athens, women were controlled by the men in their lives by having their father control them before marriage, and their husbands after. Another difference between the two countries was how their governments originally began.
Because aristocratic families in ancient Rome did not want a government dominated by one ruler, they overthrew the king to avoid losing their own power and established the Roman Republic in 509 B.C. In this new government, the idea was that an entire community of people would take part in the government. Though it was to include all citizens, it was dominated by the patricians: the elite, noble and upper class of Rome, with the plebeians (anyone who wasn 't a patrician) bringing up the rear. Structurally, this government consisted of patricians, who would be in the highest seats of the government, such as consuls and senators, and the plebeians, with a lesser say in government matters and banned from holding political office, were members of an assembly, effectively choosing the aforementioned consuls from the senate, leaving most of the benefits from this structure for the patricians. The patricians, who consisted of the noble and elite of ancient Rome, were able to hold the highest seats in the government.
From the Etruscans the Romans learned military strategy including the use of the unit called the legion which fought in phalanx positions. In 509 B.C however, the Roman nobles revolted against their king, Tarquin the Proud, and established a republic. By this time, Rome’s society was already divided into two groups, the common people called the Plebeians, and the nobles called the Patricians. The Patricians were the heads of the leading families of Rome. Instead of the king, they elected two consuls.