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What to Do with All the Waste Material?

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INTODUCTION

1.0 Background of Study

Nowadays industrial sector has grown increasingly higher thus produce more waste material that need to be drain out to the environment. Most of this waste contains a lot of chemicals that are dangerous to human and may corrupt the biodiversity of our ecosystem. Heavy metals in industrial waste are one of the problem encounter today as one of a serious matter that need attention to. Due to rapid industriallisation, heavy metals have been excessively released into the environment, with remarkable impact on humans and other organism. Cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, mercury, and chromium are often detected in industrial wastewater, causing an obvious or potential threat to water quality, human health and biodiversity in the ecosystem(Huidong et al.,2008).
There are also other sources can contaminated the water with heavy metals such as batteries, excessive soap foam from washing car, fertilizer from gardening, and other things that connect to our daily activity contribute to exposing water to heavy metals.Heavy metals in the aquatic medium may originate from wastewater of many industries, such as batteries, tanneries, electrical,electroplating, fertilizers, pesticides, mining, refining ores, etc. (Banerjee et al., 2012; Manzoor et al., 2013).

Consuming water that contains heavy metals are hazardous to human health. It can pose a threat to human health and environment due to its hazardous effect.Heavy metals existence in water can damage many of human part even in low concentration. Therefore removing heavy metals in water are very important.The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set up the maximum contamination levels (MCLs) of heavy metals for surface or groundw...

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...ructural polysaccharides,amido, amino, sulphydryl carboxyl groups, alcohols and ester.These functional groups substitute hydrogen ions for metal ionsin solution or donation of an electron pair to form complexes with the metal ions in solutions. Due to abundant binding groups, AWBs could be an enormous potential source of adsorbent materials for decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater (T.A.H. Nguyen a, et al,2013). The hydroxyl and carboxyl groups present in these biopolymers are the responsible of Cr(VI) reduction and subsequent Cr(III) adsorption (Marta López-García a, 2013) (Lin andWang, 2012; Wang and Lee, 2011).

2.3 Properties of Sand

Sand are sedimentary particles where can be found at beaches or desert. Sand are very important as a filter media for its characteristic that can reduce bacteria, viruses turbidity and protozoa from water.
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