Free Functional group Essays and Papers

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    6.3 Functional Groups 2.6.3.1 Hydrocarbon Groups Essential oils commonly contain alkene functional groups. Alkenes functional group is characterized by a carbon-carbon double bond that has special chemical properties due to its electron density. Alkene hydrocarbons can be classified into endocyclic, exocyclic and acyclic alkenes. In endocyclic alkenes the carbon-carbon double bond can form part of the ring, while in exocyclic alkenes it can be found in the side chain. 2.6.3.2 Hydroxyl Groups Alcohols

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    Analysis Of Dendrimer

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    growth, each new iterative reaction is characterized by the generation of an exponentially increasing number of functional groups on the periphery and double the molecular weight than the previous layer (Vogtle et al., 1978). The reaction steps can be repeated to increase the size of dendrimers as required. Many problems occur from side reactions and incomplete reactions of the end groups that lead to structural defects. To prevent side reactions and for completion o...

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    Esters Essay

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    Esters are pervasive in nature and commonly used in industry which makes them an essential functional group to everyday life. This investigation was conducted to find how the molecular structure and electron movement contribute to the properties performed by esters within molecules. It was found that, in nature, esters are responsible for pheromones released by plants and animals and also for the pleasant aromas of many fruits and flowers. In industry, it was found that esters are needed to create

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    nitrogen and carbonyl so it’s hydrophilic.2. Hydroxyl: hydrophilic because of the presence of Oxygen that can H-bond with water.3.benzene ring: lipophilic because of non-polar hydrocarbon ring. 4. Methyl is lipophilic because of the nonpolar hydrocarbon group. Aspirin: 1. Carboxylic acid: Oxygen that’s polar which can H-bond with water. 2. Ester: lipophilic because it is non polar although it has oxygen. 3. Benzene: lipophilic because of non-polar hydrocarbon ring. Phenyl butazone 1. Carbonyl: hydrophilic

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    Chloromethane- Methyl Chloride

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    Chloromethane, more commonly referred to as methyl chloride, is an organic compound categorized as a haloalkane functional group. Functional groups are atoms that control how the molecule will react with other molecues. Haloalkane functional groups consist of a carbon atom with four single bonds and one of the bonds in occupied by an element in the Halogen family; in this case chlorine. The structural formula is CH3Cl. This formula effects some of the physical properties which include the boiling

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    Hi

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    trioctylborane. Next, oxidation step. Hydrogen peroxide was deprotonated by OH- group become nucleophilic hydroperoxide anion since conjugated base is better nucleophile. Nucleophilic hydroperoxide anion attack the electrophilic boron atom (BR3) to leave boron atom a negative charge. Then the electrons between R-B migrate to oxygen which break R-B and O-O bond and form R-O bond1. After three times which boron bond with three –OR group, become to trialkyl borate B(OR)3. Attacking of H+as nucleophile withelectrophilic

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    chemical and physical techniques. The only thing is known about the compound is that it contains one of the functional group: alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, phenol and ester. Therefore I devised a sequence of tests that would identify which one of the groups the sample contains. The flow chart below shows the chemical techniques, which I will use to identify the functional group of the unknown. 1: Test with universal indicator. [IMAGE] Turn red turn And other colour.

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    technology kept changing and became more advanced companies realized that having “multi-tasking employees” was not enough to satisfy the market demands and the production problems they were having at that moment. In other to solve these problems, group of employees were assigned different tasks, and without probably knowing, they started to form what we know today “teams”. Nowadays, big and small companies tend to believe that the solution to their problems is creating teams. Even though this thought

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    mixture of sulfuric acid and nitric acid to give the 4-nitro derivative (3). The nitro group in compound (3) is then displaced by hydroxymethylation in a nucleophilic substitution reaction to yield compound (4). This is then treated with acetic acid anhydride in a redox reaction to yield the ester derivative (5). Compound 5 is then treated with a base to form the corresponding alcohol (6). The hydroxyl group of compound 6 is then displaced in a substitution reaction with a chloride using thionyl

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    Comparing alkanes and alkenes: When dealing with organic compounds a small difference within their structure will change both their name and their properties. Differences within the molecules can also change their reactivity. Alkanes and alkenes still take the standard prefix of meth, eth, prop, but and so on, as the hydrocarbons are still counted in the same way. However, the ending of the compound name changes depending on the type of carbon to carbon bonds within the molecule. If the compound

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    Opioids Research Paper

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    Opioids are a group of drugs that act as pain relievers. Morphine and Codeine are the most well-known of these opioids. Morphine is administered in hospitals and is used to treat extreme pain, generally after surgery. Opioids are also native to our body, the ones we produce are known as endorphins. When an opioid is released into the body, it binds to opioid receptors, these reduce nerve transmission and therefore reduce pain and to a lesser extent, emotions. Over time the body will develop a dependence

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    What's Organic Chemistry

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    With a multitude of carbon compounds existing in this world, there was a need for a way to organize all of them by their characteristics. A few of the many functional groups include alcohol, aldehydes, amines, esters, ethers, and ketones. The substance that seems most interesting is benzoin, which is characterized in two of the functional groups mentioned. It is involved in many different processes and is widely used in foods, mainly baked products. Benzoin is viewed as off-white crystals, with a slight

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    Purpose: To help students identify the functional groups in a mixture of two compounds by interpreting the IR spectroscopy, measuring the boiling point, comparing the physical and chemical properties of an unknown with a known substance. In addition, students will learn how impurities affect the boiling point and solubility of a substance. Procedure: The student will read the IR spectroscopy of the unknown first. Then perform various tests and measure the boiling point. Beilstein Test The Beilstein

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    makeup of pharmaceuticals. Qualitative analysis is a method of testing a chemical mixture to determine its chemical makeup, such as its functional group. Identifying functional groups of an unknown compound are important, as it helps in understanding how a chemical acts under certain conditions, such as when changing physical states. Depending on the functional group, the boiling point will be higher or lower, due to the strong or weak intermolecular forces. In this experiment qualitative analysis is

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    final weight     percent yield      2,4-DNP     Tollen's test     pathway .42g     67%     positive     negative     oxidation of secondary OH Good Things My experiment went well. I began my experiment with .64g of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol. The molecular weight of this compound is 146.2g/mol. It is converted into 2-ethyl-1-hydroxyhexan-3-one. This compounds molecular weight is 144.2g/mol. This gives a theoretical yield of .63 grams. My actual yield was .42 grams. Therefore, my percent yield was 67%

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    substitution. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution is a type of reaction that uses electrophile for aromatic ring from their substitution of one group of atoms. In other words, they can transfer acyl group to an aromatic ring. Friedel-Crafts has an acyl group that is attached to the structure that has aromatic ring. Acylation is used to give ketones. Carbonyl group makes electron to move back or move away in Friedel-Crafts Acylation, so it has not produced multiple acylations. Moreover, Lewis acid and

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    Fruits and vegetables are important components of our diet. We take fruits in raw state or in the form of juices, while vegetables are taken in the cooked form or sometimes as juices. Fruits and vegetables provide us carbohydrates, proteins and various other important organic compounds. The juices are rich sources of minerals, vitamins and many micronutrients (calcium, iron etc.) essential for us. For example, iron deficiency in humans causes anaemia and anaemic persons are advised to take

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    Diphenyl Ether: Organic Compound

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    Diphenyl ether, first gaining attention in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, is an organic compound that belongs to the ether organic functional group with a molecular formula of C12H10O. Also referred to as 1,1’-Oxybisbenzene, biphenyl oxide, diphenyl oxide, phenyl oxide, phenyl ether, or phenoxybenzene, diphenyl ether consists of two phenyl rings attached by an oxygen atom. The structural formula appears in Figure 1. Phenyl rings, C6H5, are extremely similar to benzene rings, C6H6

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    Ritalin (Methylphenidate) Optimization Ritalin Pills Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently the dominating psychiatric disorder found in children. The creation of the drug Ritalin based on the molecule Methylphenidate in the early 90’s sparked a widespread use of this psycho stimulant, which still remains as one of the most popular drugs used to counteract the symptoms of ADHD. My ultimate goal in this research project is to design analogs for the drug Ritalin

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    nucleophilic substitution reactions, non-aldol carbonyl chemistry , and addition carbon-carbon multiple bonds. 1 There are more than one click chemistry reaction types. There’s the nucleophilic opening of rings, cycloaddition reactions, and protecting group reactions. 1 There are various examples of click chemistry being coupled with controlled radical polymerization. Three common controlled free radical polymerizations are: atom transfer readical polymerization (ATRP), nitroxide-mediated polymerization

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