Prejudice is defined as a preconceived thought or opinion about someone. While prejudice can be positive, in the concept of hate crimes they are negative feelings, thoughts, or opinions that are aimed towards a certain religious, ethnic, race, or even sexual orientation group. The typical definition of hate crime is that a crime has been committed by a majority member against a minority member simply because the victim was a minority. However, as of recent the definition has been expanded to allow for any crime committed by bias towards the victim’s social group such as anti-gay or anti-lesbian. Hate crimes are an extreme, potential effect due to prejudice and discrimination towards someone based on ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation.
People have different opinions on how it should be regulated or if it should be regulated. It is hate speech. What exactly is hate speech? Hate speech is when a person uses words intentionally to hurt someone else; they can use hateful words based on race, religion, gender, or sexual orientation (dictionary.com). Yet the origin of hate-speech laws has been largely forgotten.
Racism and irrational prejudices operate in a vicious circle. Racism is among the worst of ingrained prejudices that characterize sinful human beings. Racism's ultimate goal, according to Fredrickson, is to establish a permanent hierarchal order that, "has two components: difference and power." Dictionaries are not much help in understanding what is meant by the word. They usually define it as the belief that one's own ethnic stock is superior to others, or as the belief that culture and behavior are rooted in race.
Hate speech is when a person or a group of people is attacked based on factors such as their gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, or disability (Sunstein 1995). According to the Centers for Educational Justice & Community Engagement at the University of California Berkeley, hate speech includes written and verbal communication. Of course, it becomes tricky is when dealing with people who have ideologies that discriminate against others, as they are under the protection of laws such as the first amendment. For instance, one can vehemently disagree with the views held by the Ku Klux Klan, which believes in white supremacy, but unless members acted upon those words, their speech and right to assemble is protected under the Constitution. Given that in today’s society even hate speech is seen as a right, it's been immensely defended in the courts.
Theoritically, it doesn’t, but practically, a concept of ‘’hate speech’’ exists. Hate speech is a speech, which is offensive and attacks a group of people based on their religion, gender, ethnicity, etc. There are many views in society about Charlie Hebdo and their caricatures- some say that it was offensive and may be called a hate speech whereas others see there only humor and zero offensiveness. But, as it is stated in the “Handbook of Human Rights”: “Those who engage in hate speech do so with the aim of causing harm (more or less directly) to those they target(Cushman,T. 2014)” Charlie Hebdo, as a famous magazine did not want to cause any intentional harm to muslims, because the aim of the press is to enlighten the society.. At any rate, Article 2 of the 1958 French constitution states
This fallacy restrains the scope of perception a person can view on racism. It is the belief that racism is solely based on prejudices and negative connotations an individual has towards other races. Through this fallacy, racism is simplified drastically, and incorrectly, to justify and categorized ourselves as racist or non-racist. The spectrum of the individualistic fallacy only portrays the extremities of racism on an individual level. A driving reason for the generalization of the taxonomy of racism is the awareness of the ridicule and harsh stigma attached to a racist.
Huck Finn is thought to be a racist book, and some of Mark Twain’s audiences believe that it should be banned from school curriculum. The main reason the public wants Huck Finn to be banned is because of its racial dialect. The use of the word “nigger” is used repeatedly throughout the novel. Some people say that “Twain’s consistent use of the word ‘nigger’ is…troubling to readers” (James). The fact that the word is so often used throughout the book offends many African Americans.
For example, according to Delgado and Stefancic, a larger or more authoritative person can use hate speech to physically threaten and intimidate those who are less significant (qtd. in Martin 49). Freedom of speech can also be used to demoralize ethnic and religious minorities. Author Liam Martin, points out that if one wants to state that a minority is inferior, one must prove it scientifically (45-46). Discouraging minorities can lead to retaliation, possibly resulting in crimes or threatening situations.
Many people describe anti-Semitism as more than simply "prejudice" or "discrimination" against Jews. It is often the result of hatred and despise of the Jews, resulting in persecution and destruction. Anti-Semitism can often occur because a religious group is trying to make itself look better (Anti-Judaism/Anti-Semitism). Jealousy and envy are also major causes of anti-Semitism. A study on anti-Semitism found that people who are anti-Semitic are likely to also have negative feelings about African-Americans, Immigrants, gays and lesbians, illegal aliens, and women (JCRC - Anti-Semitism).
Some people believe that race is the primary determinant of human abilities and capacities and behave as if racial differences produce inherent superiorities. People of color are often injured by these judgements and actions whether they are directly or indirectly racist. Just as individuals can act in racist ways, so can institutions. Institutions can be overtly or inherently racist. Institutions can also injure people.