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Web. 11 Apr. 2014. Rousu, Matthew, et al. “Effects and Value of Verifiable Information in a Controversial Market: Evidence from Lab Auctions of Genetically Modified Food.” Economic Inquiry 45.3 (2007) : 409-432.
After the discovery of DNA’s structure by Watson and Crick, scientists continued to crack the code, and DNA modification became possible when Professor Herbert Boyer created recombinant DNA (Chemical Heritage Foundation, Paul Berg, Herbert W. Boyer, and Stanley N. Cohen). He was able to create recombinant DNA by splicing the desired trait and inserting it into a cloning vector which would allow the gene to be transferred and expressed in organisms (HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, How are GMOs Made?). He continued this work with Keiichi Itakura, a scientist at City of Hope Medical Center, to create the first genetically modified organism. Their creation of “a plasmid that coded for human insulin” called Humulin would soon be sweeping the world with many concerns (Chemical Heritage Foundation, Paul Berg, Herbert W. Boyer, and Stanley N. Cohen). Although it has been debated about widespread health concerns, the production of genetically modified organisms does not impose health risks, but it increases benefits for the agricultural industry, medical field, and economy.
stateline.org. 17 Mar. 2014: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web.
9 July 2013. Web. 19 Feb 2014. Phillips, Theresa. “Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and Recombinant DNA Technology.” nature.com.
With other techniques scientists can isolate sections of DNA representing single genes, determine their nucleotide sequences, and reproduce them in the laboratory. This offers the possibility of creating entirely new genes with commercially or medically desirable properties. While the potential benefits of genetic engineering are considerable, so may be the potential dangers. For example, the introduction of cancer-causing genes into a common infectious organism, such as the influenza virus, could be hazardous. We have come to believe that all human beings are equal; but even more firmly, we are taught to believe each one of us is unique.
Ribonucleic acid is very versatile with its build and functions. In the lives of DNA and RNA, each goes through processes known as replication, translation, meiosis and mitosis (Hall, 16, 18). During one of these processes, mutations can occur; one of these mutations can be the cause of oncogenic viruses (Hall, 53). RNA is an essential molecule that deals with coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes (Epigenetics Modifications and Viral Infections, 2007-2014). When it comes down to epigenetic alterations in oncogenic viruses, it leads to the discovery of how viruses can infect our cells through inheritance such as some cancers.
Gene therapy is revolutionising the world of medicine and it could be the biggest and most helpful treatment created. Gene Therapy is designed to insert genetic material into abnormal genes. When a gene is inserted direct to cell it will not function so a carrier 'The Vector'- a genetically engineered DNA molecule is used to deliver and welcome the new type of gene into the body to fight the disease. A mutated gene can cause the protein that is needed to be missing or faulty, Gene Therapy can introduce a healthier and brand new copy of the gene to reset the function of protein. A virus is used as a vector, delivering the gene by being inserted directly into the specific tissue in the body, where it is taken up by individual cells.
This new method works in a similar way that antibiotics does. When antibodies enter our internal system they attack a specific type of enemy cell or virus and destroy it. Likewise, DNA scissors enter the body and attack a specific type of enemy virus or cell. ... ... middle of paper ... ...osing their lives as a result. In the future, geneticists would be able to clone pieces of organs and, then, make organs for surgeries involving transplants.