Schweikart, Larry, and Michael Allen. A Patriot's History of the United States: from Columbus's Great Discovery to the War on Terror. Reno, NV: Sentinel, 2004. Print. 301.
Over the next few years it became evident that the system of government that had been chosen was not strong enough to completely settle and defend the frontier, regulating trade, currency and commerce, and organizing thirteen states into one union. So in the summer of 1787 delegates from the twelve states convened in Philadelphia to draft a new Constitution. They proposed a strong national government that would assume many of the powers previously imposed upon the states. (1) “No sooner than had the Continental Congress laid the proposed Constitution before the people for ratification, ” Irving Brant writes, “than a cry went up: it contained no Bill of Rights.”(2) People objected because the liberties they had fought for in the Revolution were not being protected by the Constitution, and then could be ignored by the federal government. The Anti-Federalist called for another convention to outline a Bill of Rights before the Constitution was approved.
The writers of “The Federalist Papers,” Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, strongly opposed the oftentimes negative effects of factionalism on government efficiency. Within “The Federalist Paper No. 10,” Madison explains factionalism, what causes it, its effect on American society and how to limit the damage cause by opposing factions. The nation’s original constitution was being re-evaluated by the various delegates present during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The Articles of Confederation, as the preliminary constitution was christened, had been the bylaws of the United States for six years.
They also had the support of the only two truly national political figures, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. The Antifederalists - led by Patrick Henry, George Mason, Richard Henry Lee, James ... ... middle of paper ... ...troversy in American history; the people of all thirteen states for the first time debated and decided the same issue. Ratification was a Ratification debates catalyst for the creation of a national political community, transforming the ways Americans thought of themselves and encouraging the growth and popularity of national loyalties. The political discourse generated by the ratification controversy continues to this day within the matrix of the Constitution; the argument in 1787-1788 is one of the finest chapters of that discourse. Bibliography: References Conley, Patrick T. & Kaminski, John P. (1989), The Constitution and the States Merrill Jensen, John P. Kaminski, Gaspare J. Saladino, & Richard Leffler (1976) The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, 1787-1791
The Independence Hall had earlier seen the recruiting of the Declaration of Independence and the signing of the Articles of Confederation. The meeting immediately discarded the idea of amending the Articles of Confederation and set about drawing up a new arrangement of government. Groundbreaking war conqueror George Washington, a delegate from Virginia, was elected convention president. During an exhaustive debate, the delegates invented a brilliant federal organization characterized by an complicated system of checks and balances. The convention was divided over the issue of state representation in Congress, as more-populated states sought compara... ... middle of paper ... ...fication debate; these essays were signed with the alias Publius, taken from Publius Valerius Poplicola, a man who supposedly saved the ancient Roman republic.
The Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781 represented the former colonist’s first attempt to establish a new government after the Revolutionary War. These Articles provided a weak political document that was meant to keep the states united temporarily. The states had all the power, so any changes made to the Article of Confederation would take every state to approve it or amend it. In February 1787, Congress decided that a convention should be convened to revise the Article of Confederation (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2009). Congress felt the Article of Confederation was not enough to effectively deal with the young nations issues.
As summarized in one Anti-Federalist essay, most Americans believed the Articles of the Confederation simply needed to be revised and that “not one man in ten thousand in the United States, till within these ten or twelve days, had an idea that the old ship was to be destroyed” (The Federal Farmer, 1787). They believed that the Constitution was not needed and as stated by George Mason (1788) that it was “calculated to annihilate totally the state governments” (pp.1). Mason believed that two government could not coexist and that one would destroy the other. He also warned that individuals would not submit to taxation by two governments. Federalist believed that a strong federal government was essential to establish foreign policy a... ... middle of paper ... ...protect the Liberty of all citizens that any State would be able to do alone.
By throwing off the British monarchy it left the states without a central government. The states needed a new government and fast, which paved way for the first constitution, the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was started on November 15th 1777, and was in force on March 1, 1781. It was written to bring a union between the 13 states: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The article was written in the early part of the American Revolution by the committee of the second continental congress, because of the wars with Great Britain and the experience they have had with them.
This plan was the opposite of the Virginia Plan which favored larger states. He proposed one vote for both large and small states on behalf of an equal representation (Teaching American History). This proposition arises a revision in the Articles of Confederation and thus the plan was defeated after three days of review due to lack of support (A New Nation Notes). Alexander Hamilton introduced his own plan on June 18,1787 known as, Hamilton’s Plan. He believed the New Jersey Plan was “duplicating the defects of the Articles and thus failed to address the source of the problem…[and that] the Virginia Plan didn’t go far enough” (Teaching American History).
As going over the names and descriptions of the Framers of the Constitution we are forced to agree with the author and others as well who say this group is the crème de la crème of the political business and military world like Washington, Hamilton, Madison, and Franklin. I must also admit though that those names were the only ones I had heard and recognized. What this book is good for it to fill in many of the spots that were missing in High School and Elementary school classes. The people who are only given 1 paragraph or a few sentences in to describe their personalities come to life in this book. For which we all must applaud Mr. Rossiter for being able to piece this pivotal moment in our history so well from notes and letters taken from the great men of this era.