Types Of Virotherapy

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Creation of the Virus
A virus is an infective agent that usually consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat. It is so small that it cannot be seen by light microscopy. The virus can only multiply within the living cells of a host cell. A normal virus infects the body and goes throughout the body finding a suitable cell to become its host. Once a virus finds the cell, it injects a new genetic code that causes the cell to turn into a virus factory. It will eventually destroys the cell, but the process makes large amounts of viruses that can then go out and find a new cell to infect, and start the cycle over again. However with an engineered virus, such as the Oncolytic virus, it only targets the infected cells and leaves the healthy cells untouched.
Virotherapy takes viruses and reprograms them into targeting only the malicious and infected cells. More specifically it reprograms the somatic cells to generate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells. In 2006, it was discovered that a mouse and human fibroblast could be reprogrammed to generate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with qualities similar to embryonic stem cells. This has created a new source of pluripotent cells.
Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, also known as the Yamanaka Factors, are the main factors of reprogramming cells. Normal gene transcription allows the inserted Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc transgenes to be expressed along with the host's gene. However not all viruses are applicable. Some viruses rely on the host to cell to reproduce and could ...

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...ancerous cells, while damaging more of the healthy cells. Virotherapy is still fairly new compared to other treatments, such as an excision of the tumor. However, virotherapy has engineered viruses to attack only the cancerous cells without damaging the healthy cells. Virotherapy is done by direct injecting the virus into the cancer. It would react quickly and efficiently while target all the other cancerous cells and leaving your healthy cells undamaged. This allows patients to recover faster because there is less to repair. This is a patient-lenient therapy, a treatment when the patient does not have to stay in the hospital for over a twenty-four hour time span, which allows the patient to continue daily exercises and tasks. However, effects vary between each patient because each person’s own immune system plays a major factor in the effects of the virus.
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