This paper discusses the methods of which human somatic cells are reprogrammed allowing the generation of disease-specific and patient-specific pluripotent cell lines that can provide immense promise in regenerative medicine. Embryonic Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are cells that have the ability to grow indefinitely, maintain pluripotency and differentiate into all three germ layers. In 1981, two groups first derived them from the inner cell mass of mouse blastocyst and showed that ESCs arise from totipotent cells of the mammalian embryo, have normal karyotypes and are able to have unlimited and undifferentiated proliferation in vivo (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Martin 1981). A decade later, Thomson et al. derived the first human embryonic stem cell lines (hESC) from cultured human b... ... middle of paper ... ...rshal, V.S., and Jones, J.M.
Besides that, Kelly (2007) stated that an “abnormal” hereditary disease-causing gene in an individual’s cells and tissues is treated and used gene therapy by to replace them with a “normal” gene. Around 1970’s, idea to use “genes” as “drugs” for human therapy was originally from United States (Giacca, 2010). Moreover, there are some objectives in using the gene therapy as a treatment. First, gene therapy is used to cure or slow the progression of disease by introducing the genetic material into target cells and next objective is to aim at the direct correction of endogenous genetic defects by delivered some additional copies of a gene (Pruitt, 2008; Giacca, 2010). Furthermore, Yadav and Tyagi (2008) found that there are two types of gene therapy which are germline gene therapy and somatic cell therapy.
These results present evidence for the requirement of TLR7 for single stranded RNA viruses and TLR9 for non-methylated CpG bacteria DNA to induced cellular effects. Conversely, further results provide evidence that support the role for TLR7 and TLR9 to trigger vesicular stomatitis viruses and CpG bacteria DNA mediated signaling transduction resulting in the induction of the interferon response . Introduction: The inna... ... middle of paper ... ... bone marrow of WT, TLR7,TLR9, or MyD88 deficient mice and infected with VSV for 18hrs. IFN and IL-12 level were determined from culture supernatant by ELISA Lund, J.M.et al Conclusion: In justification with the previous study on TLR9 recognition of CpG DNA and initiating an innate immune system, Lund, J.M. et al have demonstrated that, together, TLR7 and TLR9 likely form a functional subgroup within the TLR family that recognize pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPS) in endosomal compartment.
Mouse iPSCs were first introduced in 2006, and human iPSCs were first reported in late 2007. Structure / function of Stem cells: Stem cells are extremely important for living organisms. In the ... ... middle of paper ... ...the neighboring conjunctival cells transfer over the cornea and cause corneal neovascularisation which results into poor vision, corneal opacity, surface irregularity and patient discomfort. Treatment: The discovery of limbal stem cells has enabled not only the diagnosis of corneal disease but also treatments for severe limbal stem cell deficiency. In certain corneal eye diseases with prolonged inflammation, might be the reason of destruction of corneal stem cells that increases the risk of surgical intervention in such cases.
ProQuest (2004): n. pag. Web. 12 Jun 2010. http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/stemcell/overview.php "Stem Cell Basics." Stem Cell Information (2009): 1-8. Web.
I will be discussing three natural products (Currcumin, Thymoquinone and Genistein) from plants that have anti-cancer effects. These three natural products have been studied for its antitumor mechanism against pancreatic cancer. The natural products have to be given in large quantities, due to its very short half-life and poor bioavailability. Therefore, to increase its bioavailability, they intend to load the natural products in stearically stabilized micelles and target them on receptors on plasma membrane of tumor cells. By delivering a cargo of chemosensitizers, which effectively block drug efflux from cancer cells, natural products can increase intracellular drug concentrations and significantly enhance the cytotoxic effect of various antitumor effects (14).
29-32 Han, J. H., and Sidhu, K. S. (2011). Embryonic stem cell extracts: use in differentiation and reprogramming. Regenerative Medicine. 6(2), 215. Rother, K. R, and Harlan, D. H. (2004) Challenges facing islet transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
In the case against gene therapy, there are certain side effects to be considered. These include the insertion resulting in an extensive immunological reaction in the already compromised patient. The virus utilized may corrupt cells other than those being targeted causing infection and yet another inflammatory reaction and in the worst-case scenario; gene therapy may culminate in tumor formation. For these reasons it is considered a risk and is trialed primarily on patients with incurable diseases. In 1990 a four-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) became the first successful recipient of gene therapy.
For example, genetic engineering and stem cell technology are being used in the treatment of spinal cord injuries in rats to find a procedure that can be further applied to the treatment of human spinal cord damages. Two particularly imperative and useful categories of biotechnology include genetic engineering and stem cell technology. One key part of biotechnology is genetic engineering. The term genetic engineering refers to the manipulation of genes by methods other than standard reproduction. There are several methods of genetic engineering, but the most common involves the joining of specific DNA strands from two different sources.