In this chapter, the general ideas of water treatment plant and water treatment process are introduced in the text below. The conventional method, treatment steps and water quality analysis are described in this chapter.
2.1 Water Treatment Plant
Water treatment plant is an industrial scale processes which process the raw water that comes from river or other water resources and produce clean and acceptable water to end-user and can be used for drinking, industrial needs, etc. Basically, in the arena of public water supply, the functions of water treatment are to remove or reduce any unneeded existing contaminants or constituents in raw water which may pose a risk to public health before distributing to the community or user. From all of the parameters that were examined, turbidity is a characteristic related to the concentration of suspended solid particles in water and has been adopted as an easy and reasonably accurate measure of overall water quality. Turbidity can be used to measure the performance of individual treatment processes as well as the performance of an overall water treatment system.
2.2 Conventional Method
In this study, the conventional method of water treatment plant was focused. The treatment processes of raw water before it can be used for public consumption must be based on removal level of impurities to comply with various guidelines. The extent of treatment depends upon the quality of the raw water and the desired quality of treated water (Hong, 2006).
The choice of which treatment to use from the great variety of available processes depends on the characteristics of the water, the types of water quality problems likely to be present, and the costs of different trea...
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• Impaction, and
A filter bed must be cleaned when either the head through the filter exceeds the design value, turbidity break through causes the effluent quality to be less than a minimum acceptable level, or a pre-selected maximum filter run time has passed since it was last cleaned. Filter units are cleaned by backwashing process.
Disinfection is normally the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to destroy any pathogens which passed through the filters Chlorine is the one of the most common disinfection chemical that being used. Most of the plants surveyed used chlorine as their disinfection agent (Hong, 2006). The primary purpose of disinfecting water supplies is to inactivate microbial pathogens to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases (Parsons and Jefferson 2006).