Tourism

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In general, the political situation of a country is recognized as an important factor that influences tourism development. A stable political condition is a significant requirement that enables a tourist to visit and travel within the destination country (Hall & O’Sullivan, 1996). When the political situation is instable, tourists will perceive negative image that directly effects the tourism industry. As Neumayer (2004) said tourists are sensitive to the negative image of a tourist destination, events of violence can affect tourist destination long after the event has passed and stabilized. Cook (1990) noted political instability is a condition of a country where a government has been toppled, or is controlled by factions following a coup, or where basic functional pre-requisites for social order control and maintenance are unstable and periodically disputed. Hall and O’Sullivan (1996) said perception of political stability and safety are prerequisites for a touristic in nature vacation. They also listed violence protest, social unrest, civil war, terrorist actions and the perceived violations of human rights can be a cause to make tourists alter their travel behavior. The tourist behavior has a significant effect from the potential risk and also has an impact on the decision making process. Tourism is vulnerable to the sinister power of political instability (Seddighi et al. 2001). Tourists are only willing to travel to foreign places in mass numbers if their journey and their stay are confirmed safe and shielded from events that threaten a joyous holiday experience. Faced with violent events in a coutry, potential tourists might fear for their lives or physical integrity, might simply anticipate becoming involved in stressful s...

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...e (1986), the impact of political conflict reverberates to its surroundings and this ripple effect extends to multiple tourism interests over what could be a lengthy period of time. Tourism activity obstructed in the short-term occurs when travel agents stop suggesting the destination to potential clients, when border closures intended to prevent tourism activities both to and from the country are implemented and when the delivery of tourism services are restricted. He also disputed negative media coverage and travel advisories damage a countries image as it affects overall tourism in the long term due to the selection of alternative countries. The tourists have decisions to stay home or select “safer” destinations which in either case are equate to significant tourism revenue losses by the country suffering from terrorism or political instability (Edgell, 1990).

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