Pruitt and Kim (2004) maintain that there is a consensus among theorists that there are two requirements necessary for reconciliation to be effective and sustainable. The first requirement is that the parties must deal with the pains of the past and together develop a shared future. The second requirement is that there should be at a minimum the following set of elements: truth, forgiveness, justice and peace (p. 218). In my additional reading on the subject, I found that there is certainly a consensus regarding the first requirement. As to the second requirement, I assert that the authors are basing some of their arguments on several unsupported assumptions.
I hope you can see very quickly that Gracia has embarked upon a series of questions of tremendous intellectual richness and importance. These are not simply questions of theology. Take as a particularly relevant example the debate about "intentionalism"-the view that the meaning of a text is shaped if not determined by the author's intentions when writing the text. There are a number of classic arguments for and against that view, however, clearly, the deb... ... middle of paper ... ...the aim is to communicate propositions. To properly interpret Descartes we have to understand how his writings form a contribution to an ongoing philosophical tradition of inquiry where certain questions are understood as significant and requiring answer, where certain theoretical tools are considered useful for that purpose, and where certain terms and definitions are taken for granted.
The Balance of Power Theory and It’s Application to Kosovo Ideas are the corner-stones of International Relations and Diplomacy. These ideas are often titled theories, a term that grants the ideas a certain degree of credibility in application, though they remain theories; they cannot be proved., only applied intelligently in hopes of arriving at the correct conclusion. One theory concerning the Balance of Power (BOP) falls under the Neo-Realist analysis of conflict within the International system. This Essay will attempt to apply this theory, somewhat retroactively to the situation in Bosnia and more specifically, to that in Kosovo. Retroactively, because the essay will principally examine how these theories can be applied to the history of the Kosovo conflict, dating to the present.
Different parties in a conflict have different interests. These interests in turn will define the level of commitment of different parties once they sit on the table with the purpose of negotiating a peace agreement (Mitchell, 2002; Guelke, 2003). Lederach (1997) argues that parties need to develop trust, and approach the process with good faith in order for the negotiation process of the peace agreement to be successful. Whereas, Guelke (2003), in investigating the signs that show if a party is committed or not, found out that non-committed parties tend to make requests that cannot realistically be fulfilled. As for the timing of the negotiation process, Zartman (1995; 2008), a well- known scholar on this topic, argues that only when the parties are ready to negotiate is it the right time to do so, otherwise the negotiation process will lead nowhere.
Cristopher Moore's work on the effective practice of mediation is of immense significance in the field of conflict resolution. Other theorists like Roger Fisher and William Ury, developed principles for effective ways of negotiations and how to reach an agreement with mutual benefits for the negotiating side. This can include conflict prevention, management, conflict transformation, and peace building. Theorists of realism concentrate on the causes of war and conflict. Contend that the rules of the international system are dictated by anarchy, which in turn causes conflict to arise.
The United Nations General Assembly 36-103 focused on topics of hostile relations between states and justification for international interventions. Specifically mentioned at the UNGA was the right of a state to perform an intervention on the basis of “solving outstanding international issues” and contributing to the removal of global “conflicts and interference". (Resolution 36/103, e). My paper will examine the merits of these rights, what the GA was arguing for and against, and explore relevant global events that can suggest the importance of this discussion and what it has achieved or materialized. The idea of intervention is either favoured or in question due to multiple circumstances where intervening in other states has had positive or negative outcomes.
Negatively, history can be viewed as a tool of dependence in the previous stated aspects. So yes, history is a crutch, but it also perhaps the most useful and utilized instrument in foreign policy decision-making. All dependence suggests is that when using history in decision-making, it should be done with caution and full awareness of all possible consequences and outcomes. In this essay I will argue two main reasons using history is a vital and necessary tool for
When analyzing and comparing the ideologies of Foucault and dialogue, Dewey and democracy, Martin Luther King Jr. and justice, and finally Royce’s personal moral insight, one can deduce what these ideologies have in common, which may provide a slice of the answer to these unanswered questions. To begin, one must understand the basic underlying claims each of these ideologies possess. Foucault emphasizes a morality structured around dialogue. Foucault specifically defines dialogue as a question and answer set up between individuals whose ultimate goal is “searching for a difficult truth” (Foucault Notes 1/15). Foucault equally emphasizes the importance of equality between partners to allow equal representation of views within the dialogue.
Introduction For many centuries, Judaic and Arabian societies have engaged in one of the most complicated and lengthy conflicts known to mankind, the makings of a highly difficult peace process. Unfortunately for all the world’s peacemakers the Arab-Israeli conflict, particularly the war between Israel and the Palestinian Territories, is rooted in far more then ethnic tensions. Instead of drawing attention towards high-ranking officials of the Israeli government and Hamas, focus needs to be diverted towards the more suspect and subtle international relations theory of realism which, has imposed more problems than solutions. Throughout the course of this paper, I seek to explore the use of realism theory to both explain and account for the Arab-Israeli conflict. More precisely, how has realism theory played a key role in Israeli and Palestinian relations, and will it impact future diplomatic efforts?
This method of negotiation of used to resolve controversy through “consultation, mediation, and negotiation rather than through litigation or other forms of institutional confrontation” (Fiorino, 1988). Negotiation and regulatory negotiation techniques are necessary when resolving a conflict and creating new policy. The first step in addressing an issue or conflict is to develop a negotiation strategy. It is important to recognize that each conflict or situation is unique. Effective negotiation can only exist if there is analysis of “where matters stand in the conflict and what accounts for its intractability” (Crocker, 2004).