The market today has become so important that society takes it as completely natural. From “The Economic Problem” Heilbroner describes three main solutions, with the market being one. Furthermore into the market, Polanyis book “The great Transformation” gives insight on how much society actually allows the market to dominate. To Polanyi a market society is seen as social relations embedded in the economy instead of the economy being embedded in social relations. Examining both of these books gives a great understanding on how life was without the market and how it came to be. Taking note of Rineharts work as well on how the workplace has drastically been changed by the market is key to analyzing the transformation as a whole. As a result of the transformation, not only has human labour been altered, but another author known as Weber states that certain peoples view on the world have also be affected. This essay will establish how “the great transformation” (Polanyi) from a traditional society to one based on a market economy has vastly impacted societal workplaces, and societal beliefs around faith of idealogical conditions.
Hirschman, Albert O., (1982) Rival Interpretations of Market Society; Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble? Journal of Economic Literature. 20:1463-1484.
The author of the article believes that through the social and productive cooperation, the society can reach its wealth and prosperity. The production cooperation has two main elements, freedom and good health. However, the author emphasizes that freedom is more important than good health and wealth as well. He points out that "the sick people can be productive, but without freedom the productive cooperation of the marketplace is impossible." He also clarified that the rich people could not enjoy their wealth without freedom. Moreover, Professor Dwight mentions that there is mutual dependence among the production and freedom. He clarified this idea in two points. First, "Markets requires freedom". The author attacks the centralized government that prevents the freedom and dominates the information flows, which is an important element of the market economy. Second, "freedom requires markets". Professor Lee emphasizes that privatization protects individual freedom. In this context he mentions for an important example that we might experience in everyday life, "the pollution problems." These are real problems in our world today, especially in the over populated cities and countries such as Mexico City and Cairo.
As a result of the new labor structure established with the industrial revolution, society begins to slice up based on the economic arrangement that this new form of capitalist consideration has offered society and to those who have to sell their labor force. This consideration becomes a necessity that people did not have before this period of changes.
The burden placed on common workers at the turn of the century, whether in industry or agriculture, was great. A mass of surplus labor at this time, literally “millions of laborers”, (Bird et al 3) had created a situation in which the private owners of the means of production could exercise a great deal of economic power over individual workers. While jobs were relatively few, unemployed job seekers and drifters were many. Thus, using the capitalist values of the marketplace, the market value of the commodity of labor was generally very low, and the workers, each individually powerless against the strength of employers, were, when fortunate enough to land a job, given subsistence level wages while oft working under very hazardous work conditions. While owners were securing what is perhaps the greatest interest of capital, profit, workers were coerced by the situations of reality to sell their labor to merely attempt to survive. Under the desperate drive of many hungry stomachs and desolate lives, workers saw a need to organize, giving rise to labor several labor movements.
The material and ideological conditions of our society is important to understand our social situation. This essay outlines the material and ideological conditions and how it signifies our social situation. Material condition means production, exchange and the organization of society. Ideological condition means ideas that are common in society. This essay will focus on the following reading: “The End of Work” by Jeremy Rifkin, “Where the Wasteland Ends” by Theodore Roszak, “The Making of Economic Society” by Robert Heilbroner and “The Tyranny of Work” by James W. Rinehart.
Debra Satz, in “Why Some Things Should Not Be for Sale”, argues for a more complex approach in market regulation, as some markets are more problematic than others. While economists tend to evaluate exchanges based only on proficiency (Satz 2010, p2), Satz considers the social context of individual practices in market relationships. In Staz proposed theory, there are four parameters of a market that can make it “noxious”. Noxious in this case meaning the effect of the market causes harmful consequences on society or persons involved. First, some markets may be reliant on the vulnerability of one party to trade. Second, some markets may have exceedingly bad consequences, in terms of welfare or status, for persons involved. Third, some markets may be one-sidedness because of insufficient information, knowledge, or ability to understand or forecast the consequences of an arrangement. Fourth, some markets may have bad consequences for society at large when they reinforce discrimination or inequality of status. For example markets that are considered noxious due to one or more parameters being present in their sale are child labor, prostitution and kidney exchange.
The current issues that have been created by the market have trapped our political system in a never-ending cycle that has no solution but remains salient. There is constant argument as to the right way to handle the market, the appropriate regulatory measures, and what steps should be taken to protect those that fail to be competitive in the market. As the ideological spectrum splits on the issue and refuses to come to a meaningful compromise, it gets trapped in the policy cycle and in turn traps the cycle. Other issues fail to be handled as officials drag the market into every issue area and forum as a tool to direct and control the discussion. Charles Lindblom sees this as an issue that any society that allows the market to control government will face from the outset of his work.
Capitalism as an economic system has not been around for a very long time. Stanford indicates that this economic system began in the mid-1700s in Europe . For a considerably young system, it almost seems impossible to imagine a different way of living. Capitalism has become deeply embedded in our social structures; it is naturalized as a way of doing day to day things. If this is the case, then we as humans have a long way to go if we are to achieve social and economic justice. The question I aim to explore is whether capitalism is capable of achieving socio-economic justice. I am arguing that it cannot achieve justice because there is too much focus on profit rather than people and it dislocates the consumers from the modes of production which indirectly promotes social inequality. Our current economic system which I will be interchangeably using as capitalism throughout the paper will examine why the focus on profit is detrimental to the social well-being of people and explain how capitalism is divisive and why this can pose negative outcomes for individuals and communities. It is with these arguments that outline the need for a fundamental change to how our economy is structured and managed.
Capitalism is a social system that is based mainly on the principle of individual rights. It has the political aspect, which is a “laissez-faire” system meaning freedom. There is also the economical aspect of it that shows that when such freedom is applied to production, it results in the “free market”. Legally also, capitalism is a system of the rule of the law as opposed to the rule of man. This essay will seek to look into the origins of capitalism and agrarian capitalism, the social property relations necessary to the development of capitalism and look at the general transition, mainly according to Ellen Wood.