The Role of Media on Aggression

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Overview of Literature Review A review of spectator aggression research will be examined in this study. Two separate research studies indicated that spectator aggression was swayed by media propaganda. In one study the much heated anticipation of rival teams drew more fan perceived violence than the non-rival teams. In a similar study where fans perceived more violence in scripted play versus unscripted play also highlighted media’s influence. Whereas, “scripted” violence being the violence mostly planned and composed. (Raney & Kinnally, 2009; Raney & Depalma, 2006). In both studies, the heightened perception of violence in rival games violence and “scripted” violence aggression by the fans was significantly influenced by the media. A review of research will also delve into the competitor’s aggressive behavior. Examining the role of gender, type of sports, competition levels all having a pivotal role in the level of aggression displayed by sports competitors (Coulomb-Cabagno & Rascle, 2006). The literature review will also look at player’s attitudes and how these players viewed aggression on the field as being a legitimate part of the game (Tucker & Parks, 2001). Also, highlighted in the research is the various measures of aggression using both quantitative and qualitative means. Most of the reviewed studies examined used a qualitative means of collecting data by the use of questionnaires and interviews. However, in two different studies by DeNeui and Sachau (1996) and Russell and Russell (1984) the investigators used penalty points as a form of measuring aggression during hockey games. DeNeui and Sachau found that the number of penalties in a game was directly related to “spectator’s” enjoyment of the game. Simila... ... middle of paper ... ...sion or instrumental aggression to win the game. Whatever the case, research in media’s role and manipulation in encouraging and enticing violence and aggression and therefore heightening the acceptance of violence among spectators and competitors is abundantly needed. Works Cited Coakley, J. J. (2007). Sports in society: issues and controversies. New York: McGraw-Hill. Jewell, R. T., Moti, A., & Coates, D. (2012). A Brief History of Violence and Aggression in Spectator Sports. In R. T. Jewell (Ed.), Violence and Aggression in Sporting Contests (pp. 11–26). Springer New York. Retrieved from Writer, C. B. A. S. (2014, February 9). Marcus Smart Banned 3 Games for Shoving Fan. ABC News. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from
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