The Catholic Church was slow to respond to the ideals and publicity innovations of Luther and the other reformers. The Council of Trent which met off and on from 1545 through 1563. The Church’s answer to the problems that triggered the Reformation and to the reformers themselves. The Catholic Church of the Counter Reformation era grew more spiritual, more literate and more educated. New religious orders, notably the Jesuits while mystics such as Teresa of Avila shot new passion into the older orders. The party's both in Spain and in Rome were reorganized to fight the threat of Protestant heresy.