Gas is one of three states of matter. The gas state is composed of a group of molecules that move freely, independent of each other. There are certain properties that define gas and separate the state of matter from the other two states: solid and liquid. Many different energies, forces, and amounts greatly affect the behavior of any type of gas. These differences consist of pressure, temperature, volume and even the number of molecules of a gaseous element.
The traits of a gas in its ideal form are governed by the relationship: PV = n RT (Guch, 2003). A change in either of the values in the relationship results in a change to the other variable of the gas. Assessing the behavior of gases via manipulation of the characteristics is done by holding the factors constant (Zumdahl, 1998). Where the number of gas moles, molar gas constant, and volume of the gas remain constant, a change in the temperature of the gas results to a change in the pressure as well. The ideal relationship between the gas factors is quite complex to be evaluated since it involves holding three of the five factors constant while two factors are assessed.
The second type occurs when a large quantity of liquid is formed by melting or by chemical reaction. With an increase in temperature, a phase boundary may be crossed bring about rapid defluidization. The liquid formed has a relatively low viscosity and defluidization is caused by the amount of liquid present. This section will primarily focus on visco-plastic sintering. Model systems, in which chemical reactions do not occur, have been used to investigate the relationship between process conditions and the tendency to defluidize due to visco-plastic sintering.
One way to describe the universe scientifically is to relate the heat with different processes of matter. Their relations and interactions fall under the field of Thermodynamics. This heat-matter interaction is apparent in the boiling of water or any other liquid. Boiling involves the physical transformation (no change in the composition) of a liquid (water) to a gas (steam) by using the heat added to the system to break the intermolecular forces of attractions that hold the liquid together. The boiling process in many physical systems depends on many factors.
In this technique the differential analysis on the base of reference material is done at different temperature. A very close and similar technique is DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) . In these technique the material is heated at different temperature although sometimes isothermal analysis also done for specific applications. The temperature is recorded for any heat release or absorption. So the heat capacity is measured at those temperatures.
Heat Capacity Ratios for Gases Materials of different types will exhibit varied changes in temperature when transferred the same amount of heat. This variation is a result of the difference in properties displayed from one material to another, known as "heat capacity." Every substance has a variable, positive valued heat capacity that represents the amount of heat required to initiate a specific temperature change. (Hechinger, page 1) For ideal gases, there are heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure given by: Cp = Cv + R The ratio, Cp = Cv is related to the ability of the gas to do expansion work. Heat capacity at constant volume, Cv can be described using the equipartition theory, which states that each mode of motion will contribute to a molecule or atom's energy.
This work can be manifest by bringing a working material from a high heat condition to a lower heat condition, by that the heat engine will produce calorific power that creates higher temperature conditions of the working substance. After generating a higher temperature state to the working substance a work will be p...
Experiment to Compare the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols Introduction: This plan will try to outline how the experiment of comparing changes of combustion of different alcohols will be conducted and what results are expected. Background When chemical reactions take place they are often accompanied by energy changes. Chemical reactions most frequently occur in open vessels. That is, they take place at constant pressure. Enthalpy refers to energy at constant pressure (volume may vary).
The tube is placed in a water bath so that the gas is at a constant temperature. The pressure is increased in steps and at each step, the height is measured and recorded. ... ... middle of paper ... ... CONCLUSION: The basic principle governing this experiment is Boyle’s law. “Boyle’s law states that provided temperature is constant, the volume of a given amount of gas will vary inversely with the pressure in the container.” The experiment proved to satisfy Boyle’s law and this can be deduced from the relationship shown on Figure 3.3 which shows a direct proportionality to the inverse of height which is also an inverse proportionality to height.
This experiment determined the validity of existing pool boiling curve models for spheres in nitrogen. We quenched copper, stainless steel and brass spheres of two different diameters in a pool of nitrogen. We created boiling curves comparing the temperature difference between the sphere surface and saturated nitrogen to the heat flux from the sphere. The curves were then compared to Rohsenow’s material dependent equation for nucleate boiling and other models to predict the minimum and maximum heat fluxes, independent of surface material. The relationship between heat flux and temperature change is different than the relationship found by Rohsenow, and is size and material dependent.