Michael Faraday: His Life and the Liquefaction of Gases
Michael Faraday was born on September 22nd, 1791, at Newington in Surrey, England to a Sandemanian family (Crowther, 7). The Sandemanians were an almost unknown off-shoot of the Presbyterian Church. Faraday was baptized in the Church but only became an official member in 1821. His religion was an important part of his life, though it featured little in his work (Crowther, 25-26 and Day, 28). From an early age Faraday showed a passion for facts and distrust for authority, two qualities that would later on characterize his scientific studies (Crowther, 9). He always had to see something occur for himself before putting any stock in it. He repeated experiments he saw in scientific books and journals to convince himself of their veracity. His first professional foray into the field of chemistry was in 1813 as an employee of the famous Sir Humphrey Davy at the Royal Institution in London (Crowther, 12). It was Faraday's enthusiasm for science which helped him attain the position for, till that time, he had been well on the way to a career as a bookseller. He eagerly went to work on his passion. His first published paper, "An Analysis of Naturally Occurring Caustic Lime" appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Science in 1816 (Crowther, 19).
Faraday's work on the liquefaction of gases came at a time when the Royal Institution was experiencing lean times and researchers had been forced to turn their attention towards the commercial aspects of science in order to survive. In between working on steel for surgical instruments and improving the manufacture of glass for optics, Faraday continued his research. After fruitlessly heating gases in an attempt to liquefy them, Faraday chan...
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...rton and Company
- Crowther, J. A. Men of Science: The Life and Discoveries of Michael Faraday. New
York: The MacMillan Company. 1920.
- Day, Peter, ed. The Philosopher's Tree: Michael Faraday's Life and Work in His Own
Words. Bath: Bookcraft Limited. 1999
- Faraday, Michael. Liquefaction of Gases: Papers. Chicago: The University of Chicago
- James, Frank A. J. L., ed. The Correspondence of Michael Faraday Volume I. Exeter:
Short Run Press Ltd. 1991.
- "Tribute to Michael Faraday." Current Science Volume 61. No.12. December 25, 1991.
- Tweney, Ryan D. "Procedural Representation in Michael Faraday's Scientific Thought."
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association,
Volume1986, Issue Volume Two: Symposia and invited papers (1986), 336-344.
In this essay, the author
Describes michael faraday's life and the liquefaction of gases. he was baptized in the church but became an official member in 1821.
Explains that faraday's work on the liquefaction of gases came at a time when the royal institution was experiencing lean times and researchers had to turn their attention towards the commercial aspects of science.
Explains that faraday's experiments in liquefaction were performed on sir humphrey davy’s request to work with the hydrate of chlorine under pressure
Explains how they enclosed a glass tube hermetically sealed and found chlorine and water had separated from each other and the chlorine gas had condensed into the liquid form.
Analyzes how faraday's work on gases was not the crowning achievement of his prodigious career, but his discoveries led to many applications of liquefied gases.
Explains that faraday was elected a fellow of the royal society in 1823 and was appointed director of his laboratory. he investigated the relation between magnetism and electricity using coils of wire and iron.
Explains that faraday lectured frequently at the royal institution, which would have been curtailed without him. charles pasley wrote to colonel drummond about his availability for lectures.
Opines that it is an object to have the most eminent man in that line, and one accustomed to teaching, like mr. faraday is.
Narrates how faraday suffered a breakdown due to the excessive strain his labors had placed on him. his later experiments led him to investigate the connection between magnetism and light.
Explains that michael faraday was one of the most respected and admired scientists in history. his work was revolutionary and his dedication to his chosen area of expertise unparalleled.
Opines that it is their wish, if possible, to become acquainted with a method by which they may write... in more natural and easy progression.
Analyzes faraday's meticulous, methodical progression as he moved from gas to gas. his entire science was painstakingly organized and ingrained with the necessity of procedure.
Analyzes how faraday maintained his humility and unselfishness despite his magnificent achievements.
Explains that faray's genius and kindness was not confined to the scientist’s laboratory and institutional lecture halls; he was keen to inculcate in children the love for knowledge and experiment.
Opines that michael faraday was one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time.
Opines that michael faraday's papers on the liquefaction of gases are often overlooked in light of his many much greater accomplishments.
Cites brock, william h. and crowther, j. a. men of science: the life and discoveries of michael faraday
Cites james, frank a. j. l., ed. the correspondence of michael faraday volume i. exeter: short run press ltd.
The Life and Science of James Clerk Maxwell
(1831-1879) Physicist and Mathematician
“The theory of relativity would have never been possible without the mathematical
equations first described by James Maxwell."
James Clerk Maxwell may not be a household name when it comes to scientists, but his contributions to the field ranks him with some of the great scientists of all time. He is mainly known for his ground breaking work in electromagnetics, spurring a field that has given rise to many of the great accomplishments of the twentieth century. His equations, which relate the effects of electricity and magnetism to one another, are key in the development of modern relativity theory and the development electrical components and electronic systems.
In this essay, the author
Opines that there isn't as much information about james maxwell available on-line and some other scientists, and most of the resources available online only provide brief descriptions of his life and achievements.
Explains campbell, lewis, and garnett's the life of james clerk maxwell.
Explains that james clerk maxwell is a household name when it comes to scientists, but his contributions to the field rank him with some of the great scientists of all time.
Describes james's fascination with the world around him and his ability to recite the 119th psalm.
Explains maxwell's work on electric and magnetic fields and the mathematical relationship between them.
It is not my intention to lay before you a life of Faraday in the ordinary accepting of the term. The duty I have to perform is to give you some notion of what he has done in the world; dwelling incidentally on the spirit in which his work was executed, and introducing such personal traits as may be necessary to the completion of your picture of the philosopher, though by no means adequate to give you a complete idea of the man.
Michael Faraday was born at Newington Butts, on September 22, 1791, and he died at Hampton Court, on August 25, 1867. When thirteen years old, that is to say in 1804, Faraday was apprenticed to a bookseller and bookbinder where he spent eight years of his life, after which he worked as a journeyman elsewhere.
Faraday's first contact with the Royal Institution was that he was introduced by one of the members to Sir Humphry Davy's last lectures, that he took notes of those lectures; wrote them fairly out, and sent them to Davy, entreating him at the same time to enable him to quit trade, and to pursue science, which he loved.
In this essay, the author
Opines that it is not their intention to lay before you a life of faraday in the ordinary accepting of the term. the duty is to give you some notion of what he has done.
Explains that michael faraday was born in newington butts, and died at hampton court, on august 25, 1867. he was apprenticed to a bookseller and bookbinder, where he spent eight years of his life.
Explains that faraday's first contact with the royal institution was that he was introduced by one of the members to sir humphry davy’s last lectures.
Describes how faraday made rapid progress in chemistry, and was entrusted with easy analyses by davy. his first contribution to science appeared in that journal in 1816.
Explains that faraday published scientific notes and notices of minor weight between 1818 and 1820. he assisted mr. brande in his lectures, and so quietly, skillfully and modestly was his work done.
Narrates how faraday married on june 12, 1821, and obtained leave to bring his young wife into his rooms at the royal institution. they lived together for forty-six years, occupying the suite of apartments which had been previously in the successive occupancy
Narrates how oersted discovered the action of a voltaic current on an electric needle, and the splendid intellect of ampere succeeded in showing that every magnetic phenomenon then known might be reduced to electric currents.
Narrates how faraday examined a chemical element chlorine, which sir humphry davy had proved to be an hydrate of chlorine. dr. paris rallied him for his carelessness in employing soiled vessels.
Explains how faraday's experiments on the liquefaction of muriatic gas proved that gases are vapors of liquids possessing a very low boiling-point.
Analyzes how faraday swerved incessantly from chemistry into physics, and in 1826 engaged in investigating the limits of vaporization.
Explains that faraday's first bakerian lecture, 'on the manufacture of glass for optical purposes,' was delivered at the close of 1829.
Describes how faraday engaged sergeant anderson, of the royal artillery, to assist him at the furnace in 1827.
Explains that faraday published two papers on acoustical problems in 1831 and 1832.
Explains that faraday's work is the vestibule of his achievements. he had been engaged within these walls for eighteen years.
Explains that faraday never could work from the experiments of others, however clearly described. he knew that from every experiment issues a kind of radiation, luminous in different degrees to different minds.
Describes how he began his experiments 'on the induction of electric currents' by composing two insulated wires which were wound side by side round the same wooden cylinder.
Analyzes how faraday's power of lateral vision, separating, as it were, from the line of expectation, came into play.
Concludes that the battery current through the one wire did inreality induce a similar current, but that it continued for an instant only, and partook more of the nature of an electric wave.
Explains that faraday believed that the secondary wire, though quiescent when the primary current had been established, was not in its natural condition. he abandoned this hypothesis but seemed to return to it in later life.
Analyzes how faraday's approach to a closed wire and withdrawal of the wire generated an induced current, opposed in direction to the inducing current.
Explains that faraday was a purely inductive philosopher, with experiments to test his deductions from the theory of ampere.
Explains that the galvanometer needle whirled around four or five times in succession when the ring was magnetized. the induced currents declared a change of condition only.
Analyzes how faraday describes the effects obtained with the welded ring, and the completeness with which he defines the boundaries of his facts.
Explains how faraday saw the rotating disk, under the operation of the magnet, flooded with his induced currents.
Analyzes how arago realized that when his disk rotated currents passed through it, their position and direction must, in accordance with the established laws of electromagnetic action, produce the observed rotation.
Explains that faraday's first paper on magnetoelectric induction was read before the royal society on 24th of november, 1831.
Explains how he communicated to the royal society a paper on terrestrial magnetoelectric induction, which was chosen as the bakerian lecture for the year.
Analyzes how the rotating earth generates induced currents as it turns around its axis from west to east.
Explains that seven-and-thirty years have passed since the discovery of magneto-electricity, but if we except the extra current, untilquite recently nothing of moment was added to the subject.
Explains that if man's intellectual nature thirsts for knowledge, then knowledge is useful because it satisfies this thirst. if you demand practical ends, you must expand your definition of the term practical.
Opines that faraday's work needs no justification, and that if he had allowed his vision to be disturbed by considerations regarding the practical use of his discoveries, those discoveries would never have been made.
It is believed that Franklin became interested in electricity around 1743 when he was on a trip in Boston, Massachusetts. On this trip Franklin attended a lecture by Dr. Archibald Spencer on electricity. After hearing the lecture Franklin became infatuated with electricity and began conducting experiments of his own. Not knowing very much, F...
In this essay, the author
Opines that benjamin franklin was one of the greatest inventors that ever lived, because of his many inventions we can live safer and more efficiently.
Explains that benjamin franklin was the fifteenth child out of seventeen, and the last son that was born.
Explains that franklin became interested in electricity around 1743 when he attended a lecture by dr. archibald spencer on electricity.
Explains that benjamin franklin's research, experiments, and inventions enabled edison to use electricity to power his incandescent light bulb and volta’s battery.
The famous Kite and Key experiment was conducted in 1752. Some of Mr. Franklin’s theories on electricity were published the prior year. Of course, Benjamin Franklin did not invent electricity but he did bring it to light and...
In this essay, the author
Explains that benjamin franklin was a writer, inventor, and scientist born in boston, massachusetts. he was the last son to be born.
Narrates how ben met deborah read through franklins' success. they had a son born in 1732, but he died 4 years later of smallpox.
Explains that benjamin franklin did not invent electricity but he did bring it to light and protect houses from destructive forces, such as lightning.
Explains that benjamin franklin had many inventions, discoveries, and improvements, such as eyeglasses with an upper and lower half and the franklin stove.
Opines that benjamin franklin is the only man on our current money that was never a president of the united states. he was enormously successful with his print shop and publications.
Explains that the declaration of independence was the first of four important documents he would sign throughout his later life that helped give right of way to the united states
Explains that benjamin franklin had a successful and long life. he suffered from empyema and died at 84 years of age.
Waldstreicher, David . A Companion to Benjamin Franklin. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. http://www.usf.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=697791 (accessed November 21, 2013).
In this essay, the author
Explains that benjamin franklin was one of the most significant figures during the 18th century. his contributions to society include his profession as a printer, the creation of poor richard’s almanac, and his experiments with electricity.
Explains that benjamin franklin's father josiah was a soap and candle maker, and the cost of his education would exceed the means of the franklin family.
Narrates how benjamin was unsuccessful in his quest to find employment after hearing of a printer in philadelphia who was in need of assistance.
Narrates how bradford and keimer agreed to hire benjamin part-time. the governor promised to set him up with a printing business and direct government printing.
Explains that benjamin franklin arrived in london in a similar situation to that of his arrival in philadelphia with one exception: he was older, more educated, and had more self-confidence.
Describes how benjamin franklin decided to form an intellectual club of people who were young, ambitious, educated, and energetic. the junto club met every friday and discussed various topics about the intellectual world.
Explains that benjamin franklin released poor richard's almanac in 1732, which became popular throughout all thirteen colonies. since there was no tv during this time period almost every home had an almanac.
Explains that benjamin franklin attended a lecture in boston on electricity, but found it lacking in intelligence. he decided to examine electricity and try to understand how to produce it and control it.
Describes franklin's experiments with peter collinson, a london scientist, quaker merchant, and interested in the phenomenon of electricity. since he lacked tall enough buildings to test his theory, franklin devised his famous kite experiment.
Explains that benjamin franklin became a member of the pennsylvania assembly in 1751 and traveled to london to represent pennsylvania in the dispute with thomas penn. in 1765, parliament aggravated the relationship between england and the colonies by passing the highly opposed stamp act.
Analyzes how franklin was dissatisfied with the corruption he saw in royal circles and politics. the hutchinson affair drove franklin's personal break with england.
Explains that benjamin franklin signed the declaration of independence in 1776 and set sail for france as an ambassador.
Analyzes ames, herman v., "the public career of benjamin franklin: a life of service." the pennsylvania magazine of history and biography.
Analyzes franklin, benjamin, and george simpson eddy's "account book of benjamin franklin kept by him during his first mission to england as provincial agent, 1757-1762."
Explains that franklin's autobiography was published by icon classics in 2005. the ebook collection is available at ebscohost.
Explains gaustad, edwin s. benjamin franklin. oxford university press, 2006. ebook collection (ebscohost), http://www.oxfordscholarship.com.
Cites heilbron, j. l., "benjamin franklin in europe: electrician, academic, politician." notes and records of the royal society of london.
Explains that jones, r.v., "benjamin franklin." notes and records of the royal society of london.
Analyzes skemp, sheila, making of a patriot:benjamin franklin at the cockpit, oxford university press, usa, 2012.
Explains waldstreicher, david. a companion to benjamin franklin. hoboken: john wiley & sons, 2011.
Vinci, John. “Benjamin Franklin.” Biography of Benjamin Franklin. Colonial Hall, 2 Jan 2004. Web. 3 Mar 2014
In this essay, the author
Explains ben's inventions, such as the franklin stove, and the bifocal, helped put him on the map and paved the road for his political career.
Analyzes how benjamin franklin's life was a turning point, as he successfully invented things and set up his ideas into america and its cities.
Analyzes how franklin's charm and friendships with french officials allowed him to manipulate french perceptions of america.
Narrates how benjamin franklin's determination and fearless heart saved the american forces from falling under british rule.
Explains that benjamin franklin was elected as the sixth president of pennsylvania. he was the first colonist to come to america in 1733, from france.
Explains that benjamin franklin was a great man, ambassador, and president to the united states of america, able to overcome any task and accomplish what he put his mind to.
Opines that benjamin franklin was the founding father of covert action. central intelligence agency.
Describes vinci, john's biography of benjamin franklin, colonial hall, 2 jan 2004.
Explains that benjamin franklin was a renowned politician, but also well known for his inventions. he was raised on protestant views and the strict rules of his parents.
Analyzes how franklin's ability to get people to listen to him and carry out his ideas was astounding. his christian based background provided a solid basis for his understandings and helped him through life.
Kilbane, Dorris, “Martin Cooper: But, Is It Useful?” Electronic Design, Oct. 20 2003, Web, 22 April 2014.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the 1970's was an era of political, environmental, and technological awareness that provided the american people with information and inventions that would positively shape the future of the united states.
Explains that nixon's involvement in the watergate scandal was broadcast nightly on the 6 o'clock news, creating mistrust of political and governmental leaders. the freedom to information act was strengthened by the united states congress in 1973.
Explains that the watergate scandal and the resignation of president nixon caused american's mistrust of politicians. the sunshine act in 1976 required government agencies to conduct meetings that are open to the public.
Explains that the united states observed the first earth day on april 22, 1970, which focused on striving for a healthy and sustainable environment. today, americans continue to strive for the same end result.
States that the environmental protection act began in 1970. the clean air and water act was amended in 1977 to require the epa to strengthen the regulations on pollutions.
Explains that the 1970's was the era of invention. many of the technological inventions, agricultural invention, and simple invention americans depend on daily were invented during this decade.
Explains that the microprocessor was invented in 1971. the impact it would have on everyday life was beyond even those who created it. few college students today could survive without their personal computer.
Explains that the modern cellular telephone was invented in 1973 and dr. cooper worked with motorola to develop and improve cell phone technology.
Explains that genetically modified organisms have improved agriculture, increased farmer's profit, and allowed farmers to feed the world with reasonable costs.
Explains that the post-it-note concept was conceived in the mid 1970's. the 3m company initially considered the idea wasteful, but was amazed at the demand for the product.
Opines that the decade of the 1970's brought to mind visual images of drugs, sex, and rock and roll, but this decade gave the united states awareness.
Analyzes kilbane, dorris, and yarett, ian's article, "has anything gotten better since that first earth day?".
Analyzes how politics can mess up what appears to be such a simple concept. bigham, roy, and chamberlain, kenneth.
Analyzes finney, daniel p, "watergate scandal changed the political landscape forever," usa today, june 16, 2012.
Despite the setback of getting rejected, Edison continued on to become one of the greatest inventors in history. However, despite us holding him up in such high regards, he too had his human faults. The rejection showed that things did not always go his way and that not everything went smoothly for Edison. This is best shown by his venture into the iron ore industry. Edison’s persistence caused him to invest not only two decades of his time but also two million dollars into the magnetic ore separator, which in the end resulted in nothing but a huge failure.
In this essay, the author
Explains that thomas edison is known as one of the greatest inventors in history, earning a congressional medal of honor for his contributions to mankind. however, his first patent, the vote recorder, changed his way of thinking.
Analyzes how edison grew up poor and worked as a newsboy to earn money. edison was hard worker, persistent, and could turn disadvantages into advantages.
Explains that edison's first patent was for the vote recorder, which was designed to record names and votes of legislators in real time.
Explains that edison received an investment of one hundred dollars for the device, but it was immediately rejected by the members of congress as the speed and efficiency of edison's vote recorder would take away their time to filibuster during rollcall.
Explains that edison received funds from his improved stock ticker to build menlo park, the home of many of edison's most famous inventions.
Analyzes how edison's failure with the vote recorder also showed his persistence. edison continued on to become one of the greatest inventors in history, but he also had his human faults.
Explains that edison's vote recorder was one of his most important inventions, and he changed his focus to commercially successful innovations.