According to Marxist political economy, exploitation is the key factor which underpins the very fundamentals of society. By this Marxists believe exploitation is more than simply an economic phenomenon, but instead a norm created through false consciousness, which has infested itself within all aspects of society; stretching from the state, to the very structure of the social system. Marx emphasis on exploitation lies in his belief that the value of a ‘commodity’ is purely derived from the accumulated labour expended to produce such a good. Although the ‘labour theory of value’ was originally contemplated by Classical Economist such as Smith/Ricardo the emphasis for Marx was on labour as a value rather than simply a cost in the production process. As Dooley explains ‘Marx maintained that labour was the sole value creating substance’ (Dooley 2005) and this point is further developed by Sayer who states that the fundamental distinguishing characteristic of Marxism ‘is the existence of labour-power as a commodity’.
In Locke’s mind, property plays a key role in the creation of civil society. “The only way whereby any one divests himself of h... ... middle of paper ... ...o thinkers place a great deal of worth in the same concepts, though their philosophical focuses tend to settle on different issues. Were Locke to consider his own philosophy in the sense that Marx analyzed capitalism, he may have come to different conclusions about the accumulation of wealth. Works Cited Marx, Karl. “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” The Marx-Engels Reader.
In order to understand why his views were considered radical, it is important to understand his philosophy and the period of history during which Marx developed and formulated his views. Radical, as defined by the Webster’s New World Dictionary states, “disposed to make extreme changes in existing views, habits, conditions, or institutions”[iii]. Marx’s theories certainly fit this definition of radical. Marx was the founder of the Communist movement, and his ideas about history and economics form the basis of socialist politics throughout the world. This philosophy was developed just as the Industrial Revolution, which was based on capitalism, was beginning to spread from England to the rest of Europe.
O'Driscoll, Gerald P., Jr. Economics as a Coordination Problem: The Contributions of Friedrich A. Hayek. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and Mcmeel, Inc. 1977. 9-11. Outhwaite, William and Tom Bottomore. The Blackwell Dictionary of Twentieth- Century Social Thought.
2. proletarians and communists, ... ... middle of paper ... ...ics and Revolution New York: Western Publishing Company, Inc., 1968 Secondary Encarta Ecyclopedia '95 CD-Rom Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia CD-Rom Encyclopedia Britanica Bibliography: Bibliography Primary 1. Freedman, Robert The Marxist System New Jersey: Chatham House Publishers Inc., 1990 2. Hunley, J. D. The Life And Thought of Freidrich Engels New Haven: Yale University press, 1991 3. Marx, Karl Engels, Friedrich The Communist Manifesto New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987 4. Gurley, John G. Challengers of Capitalism: Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and Mao New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1988 5.
Therefore today I will be arguing that capitalism does promote the exploitation of workers. Karl Marx famously thought that capitalist economy promotes the systematic exploitation of workers. For Marx, this idea was based on a labour theory of value, which most scholars reject today. The labour theory of value states that the average number of labour hours required to produce that commodity can objectively measure the value of a commodity (D. McLellan 1973). Nevertheless many philosophers today still agree with Marx’s basic claim, that capitalism is inherently exploitative, they simply define exploitation in broader and less contentious terms, instead of thinking about exploitation as involving the forced extraction of surplus value from labour, nowadays philosophers adjust Marx’s view on exploitation to be the process of taking unfair advantage of others vulnerability (S. Lukes 1987).
Marx’s Alienation of Labour There is deep substance and many common themes that arose throughout Marx’s career as a philosopher and political thinker. A common expressed notion throughout his and Fredrick Engels work consists of contempt for the industrial capitalist society that was growing around him during the industrial revolution. Capitalism according to Marx is a “social system with inherent exploitation and injustice”. (Pappenheim, p. 81) It is a social system, which intrinsically hinders all of its participants and specifically debilitates the working class. Though some within the capitalist system may benefit with greater monetary gain and general acquisition of wealth, the structure of the system is bound to alienate all its participants.
Karl Marx was a German philosopher and political theorist. He developed the socio-political theory of Marxism. One of his most famous works is The Communist Manifesto that he co-wrote with Friedrich Engels. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx discusses his theories on society, economics and politics. He believed that “all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle”.