(1998) Hospice-based Palliative Care Teams: The Hospital-Hospice Interface (2nd ed). Oxford University Press: Oxford. Zola (1972) cited in Armstrong, D. (1989) An Outline of Sociology as Applied to Medicine (3rd ed). Wright: London.
This essay will also highlight some of the challenges faced by the societies around the world in addressing medical inequality. Medical dominance and medicalisation According to Foucault and Illich (in Van Krieken et al. 2006: 351-352), doctors and the medical profession have traditionally been empowered by their knowledge as the authority that society defers to with regards to the definition of disease and health. With improvements in medical technology as well as the advent of the hospital, an evolution... ... middle of paper ... ...London: SAGE. Broom, D.H. and Woodward, R.V.
20) Josefson, Deborah. “US Scientist Plans Human Cloning Clinic.” British Medical Journal. 1998;316: 167. 21) Furrow, Barry, et al. Health Law: Cases, Materials and Problems.
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• Ham, C. (1996) ‘Managed Markets in Health: The UK Experiment’. Health Policy vol. 35 No.3 pp 279-292 • Harrison, S. (1988) ‘Managing the National Health Service.’ (Chapman and Hall). • Lowe (1993) ‘The Welfare State in Britain Since 1945’. London: Macmillian press.
Public health practice in the nineteenth century mainly focused on sanitary reforms such as clean water, efficient sewage system, garbage collection and disposal, fumigation practices and clean housing facilities. This was mainly attributed to the filth theory which was widely accepted during that time. These sanitary measures were necessary to keep the infectious diseases such as smallpox, cholera and typhoid under control so as to prevent their epidemic outbreaks. However, in the early twentieth century, the advent of germ theory shifted the focus of public health from sanitary reforms to the laboratory. This changed the outlook of public health officials leading to alterations in the treatment procedures of the disease which were now concentrated mainly on the elimination of bacteria causing the disease.
Sociology of Health and Health Care. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. TAIT & SUE. (2007) Television and the Domestication of Cosmetic Surgery.
Those newly defined illnesses changed people’s perceptions and expectations of health and old age, thus dramatically altering society’s expectations of medicine and subsequent life quality. Conrad’s ethnography is a good example of the ethnomedical approach to medical anthropology that addressed several health conditions that are prominent in the United States. He culminated his book by arguing medicalization primarily serves as a form of social control, solving problems with individuals and not society. While the book clearly explained a wide range of negative causes and effects of medicalization, Conrad only acknowledged a few examples of successful resistance briefly in his last chapter. In order to empower its readers beyond education, the book should have examined these instances of anti-medicalization to find similarities and derive productive countermeasures for individuals to follow.
"Active and Passive Euthanasia", Social Ethics: Moral and Social Policy, McGraw-Hill, 1982. 52-56 Reich, Warren. Quality Of Life. New York: Paulist Press, 1990. Rothenberg, M. & Chapman, C. Barron's Medical Guide Second Edition, Barron's Educational Series', 1989