The Journal of Politics 67.03 (2005): 690- 715. Print. Rivers, Douglas, and Nancy L. Rose. "Passing the President's Program: Public Opinion and Presidential Influence in Congress." American Journal of Political Science 29.2 (1985): 183-96.
3 Aug. 2013. United States. Congressional Research Service. Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments. By Morton Rosenberg.
Therefore, it is not unforeseen that today, in the War on Terror, the... ... middle of paper ... ...alance of power between the President and the Congress has been shown to sway like a pendulum, conditional on key occurrences at the time, where as Justice Jackson argues at times the Presidency should be considered to be dominant, while at other times the Congress should be considered to be the dominant authority. In this perspective, it is essential that the Congress plays an important role in the foreign policy making process, since the most important feature of the U.S system is the division of powers. References Curtis, A. B., & Flaherty, M.S. (2004).
Retrieved from http://devry.vitalsource.com/books/9781256086260 www.whitehouse.gov/presidents. Bose, M.. (1998). Shaping and Signaling Presidential policy; the National Security Decision Making of Eisenhower and Kennedy. College Station: Texas A&M University Press Greenstein, F.I, (2005). Presidents, their Styles and their Leadership.
Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist Paper, Number 70, argued for a strong president, and believed that dynamic and enthusiastic presidential leadership was "essential to the protection of the community against foreign attacks; it is not less essential to the administration of the laws." This type of president would not bow down to congressional demands. James Madison, on the other hand, believed more in the shared powers of Congress and the president--that they are equal. He also believed that the president is protected by the concept of separation of powers, but that the chief executive is an equal partner in the policy-making process. Most of our presidents prefer the Hamiltonian interpretation of presidential power, exercising leadership over Congress, as opposed to deferring to them (Fausold et al).
In the most widely quoted and discussed model of presidential power, Richard Neustadt states that the power of the president lies in the power to persuade. According to Neustadt, the key to presidential success and influence is persuasion. Although some may view the president as a powerful authority figure, the checks and balances established by the founders makes the president’s skills of persuasion crucial. The president’s accumulation of personal power can make up for his lack of institutional powers. The president must act as the “lubricant” for the other sectors of government in order to preserve order and accomplish business.
Office of the Press Secretary. Remarks by the President in State of Union Address, 25 January 2011. Rosencrance, Richard. “International The World of International Relations” in International Relations Traditions & Contemporary Challenges, edited by Jay Parini, 97-100. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 2011.
1). Washington, DC: CQ Press. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/ congressguide/ g2c6e1-972-36391-1839599 Early notions of representative government. (2008). Guide to Congress (6th ed., Vol.
One of those powers is to give Congress information via a State of the Union address and ask them to consider allowing the measures they wish to take on a certain event (Linder). Just because the President has the authority to bring up these issues, does not mean that Congress has to agree with the action they want to take on it. This is where a president’s power to persuade, plays a big part in getting what they want f... ... middle of paper ... ... than another. Works Cited Ellington, Lief. n.d. Presidential Powers and the Modern Presidents.