Substance abuse and addiction are more than an individual problem it is a social issue. Substance abuse is defined as the dependence on an addictive substance (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2014). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) found that 8.7 percent of Americans older than 12 years of age are addicted to some type of addictive substance (Caron, 2009). Substance abuse doesn’t pertain to a certain person or group; it can range from any age, race, gender, or social class. Several people believe that substance abuse is easy to overcome, when in fact for many substance abusers it is a disease that is hard to cure which could lead into a greater issue, such as addiction.
However, the common complaints usually do not satisfy the stringent DSM-IV-TR criteria for somatization disorder and can be categorized more closely to undifferentiated somatoform disorders. The most common theories propose that the low rate of reporting psychological problems and high rate of overemphasizing bodily symptoms among Asians compared to other ethnic groups may reflect cultural rather than cognitive preferences (Lin & Cheung, 1999; Chun, Eastman, Wang, & Sue, 1998). This is most evident in studies of various culture-specific syndromes such as the two Korean folk syndromes listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000): hwa-byung and shin-byung. Hwa-byung is literally translated into English as “anger syndrome” and attributed to the suppression of anger, disappointment, grudges, and unfulfilled expectations and the symptoms include insomnia, fatigue, panic, fear of impending death, dysphoric affect, indigestion, anorexia, dyspnea, palpitations, generalized aches and pains, and... ... middle of paper ... ...that this view of somatization as a mark of psychological primitivism can be used against the patients by disqualifying and invalidating their somatic symptoms and expressions of distress. I recognize that issues that are relevant to the mental health of any cultural or ethnic group is multidimensional and complex.
The best way to prevent sudden relapse is to understand warning signs of addiction and factors that commonly lead to relapse. Factors vary for each person and situation, but relapse causes include emotional triggers, social situations and physical changes, (Recovery.org). In 2010, the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that over 22.5 million Americans ages 12 or over had abused drugs within one month prior to the date of the survey. Many of the centers offer differing approaches to the recovery process, from those that highlight the spiritual nature of recovery to more secular approaches that focus on the medical aspect of dealing with an addiction.
Many people believe that marijuana is not addictive, but “According to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 4.3 million Americans were classified with dependence on or abuse of marijuana” (“Marijuana Use”). Not only is marijuana addictive, doctors still do not know all of the things marijuana can do to a patient. Studies have shown that, “Patients react very differently to cannabinoids” (McCarberg) making it very hard for doctors to find accurate data. Even though this shows that marijuana has different effects on different people, it still helps many people fight diseases. Another major point that has been argued for the legalization of marijuana is how it can benefit the economy.
There exists substantial evidence that marijuana is less harmful than legal product like alcohol or nicotine. The war on drugs is comparable to the Vietnam War in its harm on the current generation of minorities. The government avoids ending anti-narcotic legislation because of the vast amount of capital which is spent on the war on drugs in terms of law enforcement and prison systems. Also there are many legislators whose campaign corner stones are often getting tough on drugs, to make an about face would mean political suicide. Yes, drugs are illegal.
I believe that those who are being treated with over the counter medication should be given the option of using marijuana. The problems with prescription drugs consist of health risks, dependence, misuse, cost, and effectiveness. Constantly are there advertisements on television pitching a new drug whose side effects sound worse than the pain it is meant to solve. Unlike most addictions, people are told to take pills by an authoritative figure that can be trusted. Many of those who fall into this type of addiction have little history of drug use and fail to recognize their growing dependence.
“The proponents of drug legalization argue that although drugs can cause health and social problems, these are not sufficient reasons for making them illegal”(Trevino & Richard, 2002, p.105). The other main question that drug users raise are that alcohol and cigarettes both cause extreme harm but they are legal! “A study by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) reports that alcohol abuse and alcoholism generated about 60% of the estimated costs ($148 billion), while drug abuse and dependence accounted for the remaining 40% ($98 billion)”(Trevino & Richard, 2002, p.92). Statistics show that there are more issues with alcohol abuse than drug abuse, but drugs are considered much worse in our
None the less this number is very alarming because it means that anywhere between 3.4 percent and 6.6 percent of the world’s population between the ages of 15 and 64 have used illicit drugs. Roughly 12 percent of those users are dependent on drugs or have some kind of drug disorder (“World Drug Report 2012,” 2012). A separate study done in in the United States by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration estimated that roughly 22.6 million Americans over the age of 12 years are illicit drug users (Bartol & Bartol, 478). The ... ... middle of paper ... ...NC. Retrieved from http://www.ncadd.org/index.php/for-youth/drugs-and-crime/230-alcohol-drugs-and-crime Bartol & Bartol,, C. R., & Bartol & Bartol,, A. M. (2014).
Female arrestees ranged from 41 percent to 84 percent. Among males, arrestees charged with drug possession or sale were most likely to test positive for drug use. Among females, arrestees charged with prostitution, drug possession or sale were most likely to test positive for drug use. Both males and females arrested for robbery, burglary, and stealing vehicles had high positive rates.46 Drug Offenders Crowd the Nation’s Prisons and Jails. At midyear 1996, there were 93,167 inmates in federal prisons, 1,019,281 in state prisons, and 518,492 in jails.47 In 1994, 59.5 percent of federal prisoners were drug offenders48 as were 22.3 percent of the inmates in state prisons.49 The increase in drug offenders accounts for nearly three quarters of the total growth in federal prison inmates since 1980.
However, despite being the ones most affected, and most at risk from drug policy, history has shown that drug users rarely get any real input into drug policy decisions (Hathaway, 2001). Drug users are part of the policy universe, and therefore have a say in the ‘Agenda-setting’ stage of the policy cycle (Howlett, Ramesh, & Perl, 2009). However, drug users could be seen to have less political power on their specific issue than many other groups in society. Because of the taboo, and in some cases criminal, nature of their activities, it becomes much more difficult to form organised interest groups, or even simply to gain p... ... middle of paper ... ...nals from those who believe that if there is stronger policing and prohibition on drugs, fewer people will be able to access them and therefore less net negative effect of drugs on personal health; and those who support harm reduction, who believe that people will still find ways to access harmful drugs, regardless of prohibition, and that instead we should focus on education and support programs - with addicts able to seek help, without the fear of arrest (Adamson & Todd, 2010). An example of the influence that health professionals have as a policy actor in this case is from Portugal.