Criminalization is an institutional arrangement that emerged from institutional forces such as vagrancy laws and being tough on crime, resulting in African American men being criminalized and having a negative impact on the solidarity of communities making it unsustainable. When these laws take place, it leaves the African American men feeling vulnerable and attached. Social institutional arrangements cause inequality. In the New Jim Crow book, it is clear how the laws are so tough on crime and it causes Many unnecessary incarcerations which is no better because in these facilities there is gang violence that just puts these “criminals” back in a bad environment. “Race had become, yet again, a powerful wedge, breaking up what had been a solid …show more content…
Once a person is put in prison for a crime they are immediately classified as a criminal for the rest of their lives and are prone to go to jail because it just makes sense. This ideology of in criminality is what maintains the system of mass incarceration. A substantial perspective of this is that it is inhumane. It is inhumane to classify a human as a criminal for the rest of their life for what may have been a petty crime that was committed. “While some have argued that increases in purchasing power in developing countries have a detrimental ecological impact, higher production wages will raise the consumption of the poor, rather than the middle classes (Shor, 318). This quote comes straight from an important article and describes how consumerism in the middle class is much different than the poor. Though they may not have as much money as the higher class they still have money for the things they need and a few things they may want as well. There comes inequality in this system because the upper class looks down on both the middle class and the poor which creates tension. “The preferable path would be to institute structural changes in the operation of the global economy” (Shor, 318). This quote from Shor is an example of how structural change is needed in society so that people who have been incarcerated do not feel so different after leaving …show more content…
Mass incarceration is a consequence of criminalization that negatively impacts the solidarity of communities. When civilians see all the incarceration in their communities they become distressed and agitated. They find this act unfair and want justice so they become violent in their own ways. This is very common in African Americans wanting justice and it becomes an unhealthy pattern that becomes the governments problem because essentially everything connects to each other and falls in place coordinating with each other. “Human Rights Watch reported in 2000 that, in seven states, African Americans constitute 80 to 90 percent all of drug offenders sent to prison (Alexander, 99). This quote used from the book proves African Americans commit more offenses to be incarcerated and is becomes unsustainable when the statistics show these percentages and makes people assume that black people are the only ones committing these crimes. A great example of this would-be neighbors calling 911 on every little situation to occur instead of talking to the neighbor beforehand. They just assume there is chaos and would rather get the police involved instead of attempting to resolve the situation
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
Alexander claims the caste system allows segregation to exist. The caste system is set up as slavery, Jim Crow, and mass incarceration. The author feels the black men are imprisoned because of continuing discrimination, poor city life, increased police force, and heavy education of the American people on the drug wars. I agree with Alexander’s perception of the caste system, because in particular African American men are discriminated against. I believe they grow up in tough cities and lack opportunities that whites have. Alexander states, “once again, vagrancy laws and other laws defining activities such as mischief and insulting gestures as crimes were enforced vigorously against blacks” (Alexander 31). Throughout history, many can notice African Americans are placed on the lower end of the spectrum. This is due to one factor only, skin color. Many people are prejudiced against the black men, as seen in recent issues cops are specifically tough on the black
Alexander (2010) describes the New Jim Crow as a moment where society have already internalized the stereotypes of African American men as violent and more likely to commit crimes and where mass incarceration has been normalized – especially in poor areas– . That is, today is seen as normal that black parents are missing in their homes because they are in institutions of control (p.181). She also stresses American society denies racism when they assume the justice system works. Therefore, she claims that “mass incarceration is colorblind” (p.183). American society does not see the race biased within the institutions of control.
Institutional racism, maintains the unequal outcomes in the criminal justice system result from the practice, resides in the policies, procedures, operations and culture of public or private institutions – reinforcing individual prejudices and being reinforced by them in turn’(Sveinsson, n.d.). This approach was generated by the Macpherson report, Stephen Lawrence, a young black
Many Americans pretend that the days of racism are far behind; however it is clear that institutional racism still exists in this country. One way of viewing this institutional racism is looking at our nation’s prison system and how the incarceration rates are skewed towards African American men. The reasons for the incarceration rate disparity are argued and different between races, but history points out and starts to show the reason of why the disparity began. Families and children of the incarcerated are adversely affected due to the discrimination as well as the discrimination against African American students and their likelihood of going to prison compared to the white student. African American women are also affected by the discrimination in the incarceration rate. Many white Americans don’t see how racism affects incarceration rates, and that African Americans are more likely to face discrimination from the police as well as being falsely arrested.
Throughout the semester, we have discussed many different issues that are currently prevalent in the United States, specifically those related to racial discrimination. One specific issue that I have developed interest and research in is that of institutionalized racism, specifically in the form of mass incarceration, and what kinds of effects mass incarceration has on a community. In this paper, I will briefly examine a range of issues surrounding the mass incarceration of black and Latino males, the development of a racial undercaste because of rising incarceration rates, women and children’s involvement and roles they attain in the era of mass incarceration, and the economic importance that the prison system has due to its development.
Racial disparity in the correctional population refers to the difference in the number of minorities versus whites represented inside institutions. “The American Correctional Association acknowledges that racial disparity exists within adult and juvenile detention and correctional systems. This contributes to the perception of unfairness and injustice in the justice system ("ACA Policies and," 2004).” “Blacks comprise 13% of the national population, but 30% of people arrested, 41% of people in jail, and 49% of those in prison. Nationwide, blacks are incarcerated at 8.2 times the rate of whites (Human Rights Watch, 2000).” This difference in proportionality does not necessarily involve direct discrimination; it can be explained by a number of combined factors.
In the wake of President Obama’s election, the United States seems to be progressing towards a post-racial society. However, the rates of mass incarceration of black males in America deem this to be otherwise. Understanding mass incarceration as a modern racial caste system will reveal the role of the criminal justice system in creating and perpetuating racial hierarchy America. The history of social control in the United States dates back to the first racial caste systems: slavery and the Jim Crow Laws. Although these caste systems were outlawed by the 13th amendment and Civil Rights Act respectively, they are given new life and tailored to the needs of the time.In other words, racial caste in America has not ended but has merely been redesigned in the shape of mass incarceration. Once again, the fact that more than half of the young black men in many large American cities are under the control of the criminal justice system show evidence of a new racial caste system at work. The structure of the criminal justice system brings a disproportionate number of young black males into prisons, relegating them to a permanent second-class status, and ensuring there chances of freedom are slim. Even when minorities are released from prisons, they are discriminated against and most usually end up back in prisons . The role of race in criminal justice system is set up to discriminate, arrest, and imprison a mass number of minority men. From stopping, searching, and arresting, to plea bargaining and sentencing it is apparent that in every phases of the criminal justice system race plays a huge factor. Race and structure of Criminal Justice System, also, inhibit the integration of ex offenders into society and instead of freedom, relea...
It makes the individual's likelihood for prosperity extremely low. This is true of not only the workforce, but in their personal lives as well. They are placed back into fragmented populations, however, this time, it’s much worse. Their communities cannot sustain their emotional unravelling after the disturbing realities of serving time in prison. In the article “The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty” written by Robert DeFina and Lance Hannon, they claim that the impoverished communities of color need the removal of imprisoned individuals for the improval of local economics. However, the article “The Effects of Mass Incarceration on Communities of Color” claims that it does nothing to help these communities. Interestingly, both make the claim that the U.S. pushes people of color who are impoverished together and lack the support they need for economic upturn. The removal of criminals in communities is great in theory, but only if the theory is based on the illusion that all criminals live in suburban environments, committing high levels of crime and different crime than all the other races. This can only be theorized if all people are being treated equally, an absolute delusion. Mass Incarceration on poor black men is a systematic cycle. Many decide to turn a blind eye, but nothing gets done when we all choose to believe that all crimes are equally justified without a
The criminal justice system is full of inequality and disparities among race, gender, and class. From policing neighborhoods, and the ongoing war on drugs, to sentencing, there are underlying biases and discriminatory practices in the criminal justice system that impacts minority communities and groups. Fueled by stereotypes and generalizations, it is important to identify and discuss what crimes take place and who actually makes it up.
Mass incarceration may not seem like major issue to people, but according to article by Melinda D. Anderson it is causing the life of some children also their families. The growth of incarceration of black people presumably seems to be increasing, particularly more within the US. According to Naacp.org, “African Americans are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites” therefore as those people are being incarcerated, it’s causing problems not only for them but also for their families as well. The children of incarcerated people are being criticized in school by their friends. Without having proper guardianship, a student’s academic life tends to fall. The article “How
...ere taken in the initial discussions of getting tough on crime in the late 1960s and early 1970s: the conservative side which argued that “poverty was caused not by structural factors related to race and class but rather by culture – particularly black culture” and the liberal side which argued that “social reforms such as the War on Poverty and civil rights legislation would get at the root causes of criminal behavior and stressed the social conditions that predictably generate crime” (Alexander, 2012, p. 45). The liberals were definitely onto something. The process by which we address crime must account for the intersectionality of our country relative to crime. We must respond by shaping our legal framework around a system that is not racially biased, that takes care of the poor and that accounts for gender differences that largely separate males and females.
Criminalization is a concept connected to racialization with roots in colonialism. Race as we know it has no biological bias with some scholars claiming the term did not exist in the ancient world. In the ancient world, status was defined by wealth and religion instead of physical characteristics. As time progressed, Europeans began colonizing and race became the rationalization for their conquests. From this, a new social structure emerged based on skin phenotype with African slaves and Aboriginals at the bottom and Europeans at the top. This furthered the notion of racial superiority and divided people based on race and assigned them to social categories based on phenotype. Author Chris Weedon describes Western racism as defining people from the east as exotic, sensual, irrational and sometimes violent, and people of African descent as lazy, less intelligent, hyper sexual, and physically strong (Weedon, 1999, p. 410). Thus the historical view of colonization was that primitive blacks must be saved and or changed in order to m...
Many inequalities exist within the justice system that need to be brought to light and addressed. Statistics show that African American men are arrested more often than females and people of other races. There are some measures that can and need to be taken to reduce the racial disparity in the justice system.
For the past two decades, the criminal justice system in the United States has been undergoing a tremendous expansion. There are now more than one million black men in jail and that one out of every four black males will go on prison in there lifetime. Knowing these statistics it put a burden on the black community because many families are left with single family home, the unemployment rate for black male go up, they can not vote and now they make jail seem like it is fun to go to.
The majority of our prison population is made up of African Americans of low social and economic classes, who come from low income houses and have low levels of education. The chapter also discusses the amount of money the United States loses yearly due to white collar crime as compared to the cost of violent crime. Another main point was the factors that make it more likely for a poor person to be incarcerated, such as the difficulty they would have in accessing adequate legal counsel and their inability to pay bail. This chapter addresses the inequality of sentencing in regards to race, it supplies us with NCVS data that shows less than one-fourth of assailants are perceived as black even though they are arrested at a much higher rate. In addition to African Americans being more likely to be charged with a crime, they are also more likely to receive harsher punishments for the same crimes- which can be seen in the crack/cocaine disparities. These harsher punishments are also shown in the higher rates of African Americans sentenced to