In 2008, the U.S. economy underwent a severe crash that left many wondering about the future heath of the economy, and weather or not it would be brought to its knees, diving into a deep recession/depression. This is where the Federal government stepped in with an $800 billion dollar stimulus program to help lift the U.S economy up, preventing such a catastrophe from happening. When the Federal government steps up in such a way as this, it is called fiscal policy. Fiscal policy involves making alterations in government appropriations and income from taxation in order to “achieve full employment, control inflation, and encourage economic growth” (McConnel, Brue, Flynn).
This paper relates to what I have learned in the Macroeconomics class. For this final term paper; I will write about the U.S. federal government operations and how government leaders handle macroeconomic issues in our economy. We will discuss a couple of current economic issues and what the federal government is doing to reach solutions. I will also address U.S. unemployment issues, international trade, fiscal and monetary policies, and methods of alternative energy, along with the Federal Reserve’s role to confidently curb recession and avoid inflation The U.S. federal government is actively involved in assuring national security through counterterrorism techniques. They perform strategic planning to give surety of macroeconomic financial stability, and economic development. Government provides financial, political, and social stability in our economy and controls macroeconomic aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Congress and the President control fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve has complete control of the monetary policy. “Fiscal policy is the changes that Congress and or the President make in taxes and public spending that has an impact on the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data.” (O’Sullivan, p.212) The GDP (commerce) data is the total market value of domestic goods and services produced only within the geographic area of a country on an annual basis. In accordance to an eHow Contributor, Shane Hall, 2011, reports that, “the burden of various types of taxes distorts funds in the marketplace because the expenses affect the cost and income of goods and services. In the supply side of economics, an increasing tax rate will affect the economic activity and hinder the growth of the economy. (Hall, 2011) In connection ...
The 2007/2008 financial crisis is widely regarded as the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. What began as a housing bubble and a rise in foreclosures, in the United States, lead to a domino effect of financial institutions collapse. What was named a credit crunch quickly became a full on financial crisis, pushing real GDP levels down to a negative 8,9% in 2008 (1), such figures had not seen since the Great Depression. This essay argues that President Barack Obama has taken the necessary steps to take the United States out of the “Great Recession” and that the US government’s response has been proven successful combining fiscal stimulus and hints of austerity and implementing them in the appropriate times.
One of the most interesting facets of The Great Recession of 2008 is that it didn’t really begin in 2008. The fiscal and monetary policy that prompted what we know now as the Great Recession of 2008 really began in 2006 and 2007. What was happening then and why did it take so long for the nation to feel the recession? The answers to those questions explain a great deal about how the Federal Reserve Bank operates and how the different ideologies of economics affect our nation (Sumner, 2011).
American fiscal policies and economic growth
Fiscal policy refers to the use of taxation and expenditure to impact on the economy of any country. Specifically, an economy of a country relies on the major instruments of fiscal policy which entails government expenditure on the various sectors of the economy and changes in the taxation system. As a result of the changes that the government can make on the two components for example through the ministries of finance or planning, various macroeconomic variables can be affected. These include income distribution, aggregate demand and allocation of resources.
Although they are related topics, budget deficits, budget surpluses, and the national debt have varying effects on different groups of participants in the U.S. economy. To exemplify some of these effects, this paper will discuss how specific groups, individuals, the United States’ international financial reputation, and the gross domestic product (GDP) are affected by Congress’ fiscal policies and the mounting national debt. Affected groups and individuals are taxpayers, future Social Security beneficiaries, Medicare users, unemployed individuals, university students, exporters of domestically manufactured automobiles, and importers of foreign-made clothing.
Fiscal policy, the responsibility of government and congress, is enacted through changes in government spending and taxes. The question about how effectively fiscal policy promoted recovery during the great depression has been a point of discussion among economists for several decades.
Every few years, countries experience an economic decline which is commonly referred to as a recession. In recent years the U.S. has been faced with overcoming the most devastating global economic hardships since the Great Depression. This period “a period of declining GDP, accompanied by lower real income and higher unemployment” has been referred to as the Great Recession (McConnell, 2012 p.G-30). This paper will cover the issues which led to the recession, discuss the strategies taken by the Government and Federal Reserve to alleviate the crisis, and look at the future outlook of the U.S. economy. By examining the nation’s economic struggles during this time period (2007-2009), it will conclude that the current macroeconomic situation deals with unemployment, which is a direct result of the recession.
In economics, the fiscal multiplier is the ratio of a change in GDP due to change in government spending. When this multiplier exceeds one, the enhanced effect on GDP is called the multiplier effect. The mechanism that can give rise to a multiplier effect is that an initial incremental amount of spending can lead to increased consumption, increasing income further and hence further increasing consumption, etc., resulting in an overall increase in GDP greater than the increase in government spending.
An increase in government spending or a reduction in net taxes is always aimed at increasing aggregate output (Y).
In conclusion, the current macroeconomic situation in the United States is characterized by moderate growth because of better economic conditions that were brought by the events of 2013. The country has experienced moderate economic growth since the 2008 global recession but has shown real signs of momentum. While the country is not concerned about recession or inflation, the rate of unemployment is still a major challenge despite improved consumer and business confidence. As a result, the Federal Open Market Committee or Federal Reserve System needs to adopt fiscal and monetary policy initiatives that help address the unemployment issue and promote high economic growth.