The Genetic Screening Debate Within the past thirty years, researchers have found strong evidence linking genes and disease. The development of predictive genetic tests followed shortly after the isolation of certain candidate genes. Although predictive genetic screening is only available for a handful of diseases, its effects and ramifications have become hotly debated issues in a wide range of areas, from government to religion. The debate began in the 1993 when researchers isolated the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. The discovery of this gene led to excitement and speculation of developing a predictive genetic test to identify those women at risk for these cancers. In this paper, I will first describe the biology of genetic testing, and then discuss the pros and cons of predictive genetic testing. Before we start discussing how genetic tests are developed, let us discuss how genes can trigger disease. A sound body requires the action of many proteins working together. For a protein to function properly, an intact gene must encode for that specific protein. A mutation describes a gene which has been changed. The most common type of mutation is a single change of a nucleotide of DNA. Other types of mutations include the loss or gain of a nucleotide and the disappearance or multiplication of long segments of DNA. Mutations can have three effects: beneficial, harmful, or neutral. Mutations are beneficial if the fitness of an individual is enhanced. Harmful mutations can either slightly alter a protein, where the protein may still minimally function, or they may totally disable a protein. In this instance, the outcome is not only based on how a mutation alters a protein’s function, but on how important the protein is to the body (Understanding Gene Testing). Since we have determined how genes can trigger harmful effects in the body, we can now examine how scientists look for specific genes that cause diseases. Scientists, looking for a diseased gene, study DNA samples in individuals where the disease has been present in the family for many generations. They look for specific genetic markers, which are DNA segments that are identified in individuals with the disease, and not identified in healthy individuals. Scientists then narrow down the area of DNA by mapping a gene. If a disease gene is mapped to an area, then the genelike sequences become candidate genes for a specific disease gene.
When Janie was a young girl, she allowed her grandmother’s opinions and beliefs on happiness dictate how she lived her life, which ultimately led to her misery. When Janie was caught kissing Johnny Taylor under the pear tree at the age of sixteen, Nanny told Janie how she wanted her to live her life: “Ah wanted yuh to school out and pick from a higher bush and a sweeter berry. But dat ain’t yo’ idea, Ah see” (Hurston 13). Since she was young, Janie had been mesmerized with the pear tree, the emblem of natural harmony and contentment. She had come to the realization that her dream was to wrestle with life, and just as she was experiencing this freedom, Nanny, the only family she was in contact with, challenged her plans. Nanny took her own experiences as a malnourished slave and condemned Janie to the life in which she was never able to have; Nanny wanted her granddaughter to marry a man with money so that he could support her; she believed that whatever Janie’s assertion of happiness was, was wrong and pointless. When Nanny told Janie that she wanted her to marry a rich man, she spoke with a superior tone that revealed her belittlement towards Janie. She claimed that Janie didn’t know what was best for herself,...
A theme that was present throughout the novel was love is what you make it. In the beginning of the novel Janie has no idea what it meant to love someone and went into her marriage to Logan thinking that love is something you learn once you are married. “Yes, [Janie] would love Logan after they were married. She could see no way for it to come about, but Nanny and the old folks had said it, so it must be so. Husbands and wives loved each other, and that was what marriage meant.” (pg. 21). Janie had no idea what love meant and figured on her own that love came when you were finally married. When she meets Jody she sees the opportunity to change her path and learn what for herself what love truly is. In an academic journal by Janice Daniel she quoted Northrop Frye writing “According to Northrop Frye, the success of the heroin of a romance depends primarily on the current energy which is partly inside her and partly outside her.” (Daniel, 1991).
“Now, women forget all those things they don’t want to remember, and remember everything they don’t want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly”. This quoted from Zora Neal Hurston’s novel Their Eyes Are Watching God, explains that women let the non-important things go easily, but if it is important, then women will make sure to obtain it. This can be seen in the novel with Janie. At first, her grandmother pressures her to marry Logan, then she runs from her marriage to marry Jody, but ultimately finds true love with Tea Cake. By the end of the novel Janie forgot what she did not want to remember and remembered everything she didn’t want to forget and with that she built a “rich” life.
Due to the human genome project and other genetic research, tests for mutation which cause diseases have been developed. The list of these illnesses include several types of cancer. Doctors have estimated that as many as 3,000 diseases are due to mutations in the genome. These diseases include several types of colon cancer in which three different genetic tests have been already developed. Debates have arisen on whether these tests should be used regularly or not. Questions including the patients= rights of privacy and the possibility of loss of health or life insurance have been argued over in both the media and political arena.
Her first marriage with Logan Killicks having been arranged and everything but loving, ended with Janie running away to be with Joe. She learned early on that love and marriage were not the same thing. “She knew not that marriage did not make love. Janie’s first dream was dead, so she became a woman” (Hurston 25). Janie was forced to grow up quickly, as she was married twice before turning thirty. Her second marriage with Joe Starks ended nearly as poorly as the first, only it lasted for twenty years. Janie became used to disappointment as she started out hopeful and ended in heartbreak because Joe hadn’t given her any freedom. “Listen, Jody, you ain’t de Jody ah run off down de road wid. Ah run off tuh keep house wid you in uh wonderful way. But you wasn’t satisfied wid me de way ah was. Naw! Mah own mind has tuh be squeezed and crowded out tuh make room for yours in me” (Hurston 86). Janie was finally able to understand love when she met Tea Cake. She was not only able to appreciate her new insight on love, but also rejoice in her newfound confidence. “He drifted off into sleep and Janie looked down on him and felt a self-crushing love. So her soul crawled out from it’s hiding place” (Hurston 128). Janie’s blossoming to womanhood is clearest when she is finally able to find love, but great things come at a great cost as Janie is forced to endure heartbreak and loss as
Rainwater is water that evaporates due to the heat and the condensation process (the change of water vapor into very small drops of water) to form larger water droplets then fall back to the earth surface. At this vaporous form, there is a transport process which is the transport of water vapor by the wind towards certain areas that will cause rain. Rainwater should meet the physical, chemical and biological conditions
With recent developments in plumbing technology, it is quickly becoming easier than ever to be mindful of water conservation. Through the use of greywater technology, and easy methods of rainwater collection, the demand for freshwater required within the home can be greatly reduced.
I looked up and the largest black bird was taking careful aim on my position. I froze. Suddenly from behind me Harry yelled, ‘JUMP ON FRANKLIN. There’s no time to loose. I think that bird means for you to be his dinner.’ I took no time accepting Harry offer, I sprung onto his back and off we went. We flew all around, both laughing at the puzzled expression on the birds face as we flew out of harm’s way.
I'm speeding across rooftop, my heart pounding in my chest as I approach the makeshift ramp. With my knees bent, I brace myself, and jump. In midair, I yank on a chain attached to my harness and large mechanical wings spread out on either side of me. They were my best friend, Reia's latest creation. The wispy, handcrafted brass feathers match the ones on my goggles.
I leapt over a pile of debris, feet soaring into the air like an eagle on a hunt. Free, empowered. There was one key difference between us though; unlike him, I'm the prey. I landed with a thud! and tumbled a few rolls. Before long, my feet were racing over the pavement again.
When most people hear the term ‘bodybuilding’ they think of massive, inhuman looking individuals, mostly males, who spend every waking minute in the gym lifting weights and injecting steroids. But that is not entirely true. Bodybuilding is much more complex than that, especially when it comes to nutrition. Bodybuilding is a lifestyle. There are many different factors that come in to play for professional bodybuilders, as well as the regular person who is looking to put on muscle mass or whatever their fitness goals might be. Some of those factors include nutrition, training, recovery, supplementation, as well as the controversial topic of drugs in the bodybuilding scene. Bodybuilding also has a unique history that should be addressed before diving into the topics of bodybuilding.
Plastic surgery is becoming a trend world-wide because humans can never be fully satisfied in terms of looks. There is always something that people critique about themselves physically. People are so caught up in the hype of achieving physical perfection that they deviate from acknowledging the fact that plastic surgery has negative effects on self-esteem, long-term effects on health, wastes money, and can be life-threatening.
Technology is unavoidable in our modern lifestyle. You wake up, you use technology; you use technology while cooking, while eating, while driving. While you’re lying in bed before you fall asleep, you use technology, technology wakes you up in the morning. Is all the technology around you good for you, or is it harmful to your health? Was our society healthier or safer before all the advancements? So many questions and concerns about all of the technology we crave, but there are very few people who know the answers. Technology affects all parts of human life. It can create jobs, motivate people to get active, and assist people in learning, but this does not balance out that there are dangers that follow the use of technology.