“Separate but Equal” Plessy tried to make change of this. From 1876 to 1965, Jim Crow Laws which were racial segregation laws had enacted at the state and local level in the United States. It declared it is illegal when a member of one race interacts with a member of another race in public space. Examples of public space are restaurant, transportation, restroom, school, and many other public locations. Jim Crow Laws led more hardships for African American.
The Supreme Court ruled through a majority vote that equal rights did not mean races had to integrate, which effectively legalized "separate but equal" access for blacks. The Strauder case stated that whites could find ways to legally discriminate against blacks without violating the law. If a black person was accused of a wrong doing, they would not have a jury to assist in the deliberate of a sentence. Discrimination and segregation went unpunished by the court, especially for black people. Social interactions were affected by Jim Crow laws because it kept different races of people separate.
The Chicano community has endured and overcome many struggles since the conquest by conquistador in 1491 and eviction from Atzlan. Race was used by the white community as tool to structure inequality for the Chicano community by classifying the Chicano community as white but treat them as a minority community. Chicano activist during the Mexican American generation found community self-determination by becoming actively involved in their community and taking hold of their own destiny. The Mexican American activists created a new way of seeing themselves by taking the term Chicano and making the term a symbol for who they truly are and who they want to become. The new ethos of the new identity of a Chicano is community self-determination; it is a community that is in total control of its own destiny.
African Americans believed that they were finally getting their chance at equality, but unfortunately white supremacy quickly became apparent. The legal segregation of African Americans from whites in transportation, education, businesses restaurants, public restrooms and other public places became known as Jim Crow Laws. After decades of inequality, the Civil Rights era erupted in the 1950s and African Americans began to demand equal treatment. The Civil Rights Era brought on various social movements in the south and north, as well as legislative decisions that pushed for a truly equal nation. The era of Civil Rights brought on strong resistance to oppression and eventually helped diminish Jim Crow laws.
I can understand why Mexican Americans boycotted schools in the 1960s. Camilla's point that Mexican Americans have had a long constant battle in America is very true. I agree with Camilla' that because Mexican Americans have had to endure so much they have been able to form a strong sense of culture. Growing up in Los Angeles I have always been around Mexican American culture. However, not until the readings did I realize the hardships Mexican Americans have had to face and how those hardships have been represented through their art.
This corrido is a great example of the role regional boundaries play in the Chicano experience because the conflict takes place in the county near the border of Mexico and United States called El Carmen. The corrido helps us understand the difficult of being a Mexican American in the United States when Gregorio Cortez says, “‘I’m not sorry I killed him, My brother’s death I would not stand…Self-defense is my rightful claim’” (133).The new boundaries created by the acquisition of Mexico’s land results in laws that only protected white United State citizens. The regional boundaries result in the struggle of Mexican Americans keeping control of their land that was previously owned by Mexico. Regional boundaries put an emphasis on identifying who a person is which can is demonstrated when Gregor Cortez says, “‘Don’t run off, cowardly rangers, From one sole Mexican man’” (134). The emphasis that Gregorio Cortez puts on his Mexican identity results from the conflict of the creation of borders.
A major effect of the Supreme Courts decision was the desegregation of schools everywhere. Integration became federal law, and schools could no longer bar applicants based on race alone. By enforcing this law, the Court allowed blacks to recieve the same education as whites and effectively removing their status as second-class citizens. They were one step closer to being fully accepted by the white majority. The integration of children's schools was a controversial step, and many southerners opposed it with extreme prejudice.
Martin Luther King Jr. advocated civil disobedience, the Civil Rights activists organized demonstration, marches, boycotts, strikes, and voter registration drives. The results of the civil rights movement made possible for more freedom in the united states during slavery and segregation. Many people have made great sacrifices for the fight of civil rights. The civil rights movement has also meant that African Americans and other ethnic minorities have equal rights and can now have equal opportunities as white people this is highlighted by obama being the president of america when 50 years ago he would have not have go to the same school as the white people.
Under the Jim Crow laws African Americans had different schools, bathrooms, trains, buses and many other things that were separated from the white population. The case, Plessy v. Ferguson went through the U.S. Supreme Court and turned out to make a legal policy “separate but equal” (A Brief History of Jim Crow). The African Americans went on to develop the African American movement to fight for their equality. The Fourteenth Amendment helped them fight for their equal rights by proving they were not being treated with equality which was unconstitutional. The Fourteenth Amendment is for the equal protection of the law for all U.S. born citizens (Kelly).
And although segregation was outlawed, Jim Crow laws still ruled the Deep South and “codified in law, sanctioned by the courts, and enforced by the ubiquitous threat of physical violence even more than legal reprisal" (Catsam 87). The Jim Crow laws drastically affected the public transportation systems of the South. The Congress of Racial Equality challenged the unfair laws with Freedom Rides, which "arose out of the need to end segregation at lunch counters, in bus terminals, as well as in other facilities essential to the intercity traveler" (Olds 17-18). The first freedom ride commenced in Washington, DC, in 1961.Because the first Freedom Riders were from the North, they didn't realize how harsh the racist South was and “violence in Anniston and Birmingham, Alabama, would prove to be too much for the first group of freedom riders, who ended up flying from Birmingham to New Orleans. .