Copy & Paste | Parenthetical Wiesenthal, Simon, and Mary Gordon. "Mary Gordon Response." The Sunflower. New York: Schocken Books, 1976. 152-153.
Of these arguments against it, is an argument concerned with the justification in the treatment of others. If there is no factual difference between others and ourselves, then the theory of ethical egoism is arbitrary and we must take others interest into recognition. This justification is parallel to the requirement of reason and impartiality in ethics. To conclude, ethical egoism is false.
According to Korsgaard, the human mind is “essentially reflective” (92). By this, she means that we are capable of examining and evaluating the various perceptions and desires which make up the content of our mind. This ablility gives rise to a problem she terms the “normative problem,” since we can critically question whether the perceptions and desires we experience are reasons, or whether they dictate how we should act. This is a problem because if the mind continues to reflect and can grasp no reason, “it cannot commit itself or go forward” (93). She also thinks that “because of the reflective character of the mind ... we must act ... under the idea of freedom” (94).
According to Timmons, an actions rightness or wrongness depend... ... middle of paper ... ...ed over or ignored. Williams disagrees with this, it simply says what does it mean to be an individual? For Williams, an essential part of what it truly means to be an individual is to have the moral feelings a human being should have. To separate a person from his own moral code or feelings is to claim that agents are irrelevant, or contradict what is essential to being a person. In conclusion Williams’s argument about Utilitarianism can be looked at in many different angles.