At the same time he has in mind a problem which claimed much attention from pre-Socratic thinkers, the problem of change. The Platonic theory of Ideas is an attempt to solve this crucial question by a metaphysical compromise. The Eleatics, Plato said, are right in maintaining that reality does not change; for the ideas are immutable. Still, there is, as contended, change in the world of our experience, or, as Plato terms it, the world of phenomena. Plato, then, supposes a world of Ideas apart from the world of our experience, and immeasurably superior to it.
The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the theory of Plato's Forms from his perspective and that of several others, including Aristotle. Topics The topics in which I will mainly focus on will be Forms as universals, Forms as separate entities (substances), Universe as two realities, and Forms as final causes. For the most part, the topics are interwoven together yet I will try to separate them in such a fashion as to provide sufficient arguments for each main topic. II. "In View of Plato's Theory of Forms" Topic #1: Forms as Universals "The essence of [Plato's] theory of Ideas (Forms) lay in the conscious recognition of the fact that there is a class of entities, for which the best name is probably "universal," that are entirely different from sensible things" (Allen 18).
In order to understand their ideas on the senses, first their philosophy on the connection between the soul and body must be examined. Plato states that the body and soul are separate, while Aristotle says they are one. Concerning the senses, Plato says they cannot be trusted and knowledge cannot be gained through them. Aristotle creates an opposing view, saying that the senses are essential to gaining knowledge and learning about the world. Plato’s philosophy
The way in which we can know the objects of reality is very important for Plato. Much like his concept of metaphysics, Plato breaks down his concept of epistemology into two categories: Knowledge and Belief. According to Plato, knowledge is always true and justifiable while belief can be true or false and can be a matter based on persuasion. Plato uses his Allegory of the Cave to introduce these distinctions of knowledge and belief. Plato's concept of the soul also takes on a multi-pronged approach.
Another limitation of Plato’s theory is when Plato says that things in the ‘world of Becoming’ “participate” in the Forms of the ‘world of Being’ (Solomon, et al., 2012). It could be suggested, that the word “participates” is just a word, not an explanation of the relationship between the Form and the particular thing (Solomon, et al., 2012). With regard to this limitation, Plato himself found doubts, which he expressed through his later dialogues (Solomon, et al., 2012). It can be argued that Plato’s theory of Forms does not fully account for all areas of knowledge or appearance and reality without creating limitations. His theory suggests to provide for a universal reality, however suggestions of how this may not be can be found, providing that it does not completely account for universal reality.
Further, in life we encounter many physical objects in which we can touch and feel. However, what makes these objects real? Plato introduced his metaphysics idea of Theory of Forms, which presents a view of what makes an object real. In this paper, I will touch upon the Theory of Forms and explain that a world of forms does exist separately from concrete/permanent things. One of the greatest philosophers to contribute the philosophy is Plato, who was a student of Socrates.
An example of this would be a brown shirt. The shirt is a substance because it does not need the brown to be a shirt. Aristotle stated that the substance creates the universals, the substance is also more real than the universals. Aristotle famously rejected Plato’s theory of forms, Instead, he argued that forms are intrinsic to the objects and cannot exist apart from them, and so must be studied in relation to them. Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal.
"Moral Saints." Gendler, Tamar Szabo, Susanna Siegel and Steven M. Cahn. The Elements of Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. 220-232.
Kantian Ethics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print. Hayry, Matti. Liberal Utilitarianism and Applied Ethics, USA: Routledge, 2013.