During the reign of King Richard II "England was experiencing her first serious outbreak of heresy for nearly a millennium." This widespread heresy, known as Lollardy, held the reformation of the Catholic Church as its main motivation, and was based upon the ideas of John Wyclif, an Oxford scholar. "All kinds of men, not only in London but in widely-separated regions of the country, seized the opportunity to voice criticisms both constructive and destructive of the present state of the Church." While commoners protested and pressed for reform, going so far as to present their manifesto, the "Twelve Conclusions," to Parliament, members of the royal household were protecting John Wyclif and his ideas, John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III, and Joan of Kent, the widowed Princess of Wales, "by whose influence he was protected from ultimate disgrace (such as excommunication)," were Wyclif's supporters and protectors.
Like Wyclif's Lollard heresy, the English Protestant Reformation, over one hundred years later, would draw support from both the common people and the royal establishment. Among the many causes of the Reformation, one stands out as the most important because it alone brought about a specifically English reformation. The religious drive of the common people to create a more open system of worship was a grassroots movement of reform, similar to the reformations taking place across Europe. The political ambitions of those at the highest levels of government to consolidate power in the person of the monarch, however, is what made a reformation of the Church in England into a specifically English Reformation.
John Wyclif and the people who followed him reflected how royal authority could be b...
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... act for the dissolution of monasteries, 1539"
Given-Wilson, Chris. "Late Medieval England, 1215-1485." In The Oxford Illustrated
History of Medieval England, edited by Nigel Saul. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2000.
Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII vol. II, sec. i, pg. 259, no. 967.
London, 1920. Quoted in John A. F. Thomson, The Early Tudor Church
and Society, 1485-1529, (London: Longman Group UK Limited, 1993),
Russell, Conrad. "The Reformation and the Creation of the Church of England, 1500-
1640." In The Oxford Illustrated History of Tudor & Stuart Britain, edited
by John Morrill. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Sheils, W. J. The English Reformation. Harlow: Longman Group UK Limited, 1989.
Thomson, John A. F. The Early Tudor Church and Society, 1485-1529. London:
Longman Group UK Limited, 1993.
In this essay, the author
Describes lollardy, a widespread heresy based on the ideas of john wyclif, an oxford scholar.
Explains that the english protestant reformation, like wyclif's lollard heresy, would draw support from both the common people and the royal establishment.
Describes how john wyclif and the people who followed him reflected how royal authority could be blurred into religious and spiritual reform.
Explains that wyclif's and the lollards' views included the supreme importance of the scriptures as guide to living a christian life.
Explains that the act de heretico comburendo allowed the government to kill heretics during henry iv's second year as king. the changing attitudes of the royal household towards the church speaks more of issues of power than it does of religion.
Explains that anti-clericalism had not died with the government-sponsored prosecution and execution of heretics. henry viii harnessed the people's discontent for his own purposes.
Explains that henry viii, like his predecessors, sought recognition from the church to legitimize his claim to the throne.
Explains that henry's rejection of luther was based not on whether they were true or false, but on their loyalty. henry needed a special papal decree to invalidate the marriage of catherine of aragon.
Explains how henry used the supplication against the ordinaries to sidestep the convocation and get the archbishop of canterbury to agree to the divorce.
Analyzes how henry reminded the newly appointed archbishop of canterbury that cranmer's decision should be independent from both the crown and the pope.
States that they recognize no superior in earth, but only g-d, and not being subject to the laws of any other earthly creature.
Analyzes how henry concludes the letter by reminding cranmer how much is riding on the divorce. he lists g-d's own happiness as the first dependent of divorce, and mentions his own honor and wealth, his successor, posterity, the security of the kingdom.
Analyzes how archbishop cranmer issued his ruling on the matter on 23 may 1533. he implied that the original grant of marriage for henry and catherine was wrong and against g-d's laws.
Explains how henry pushed for more de jure powers over an increasingly non-papal english church. the convocation's subordinate position to the king is stated at the beginning of the document.
Explains that henry's most striking move against rome and the papacy was the 1534 act that officially broke with the pope and made henry "the supreme head of the church of england."
Explains that the right of authority and profits took on a longer and more solid form in the years following the 1534 act.
Explains that the 1536 act of parliament closed smaller monasteries for consolidation purposes and confiscated all monastic property within henry's realm.
Explains that land, riches, and saints' body parts were direct possessions of the crown. the dissolution of monasteries brought to the crown an additional net annual income of over £136,000.
Explains that the act of six articles was neither protestant nor protestant, resulting in fear from luther's english followers.
Explains how henry viii's actions created an independent church of england, but dogmatic beliefs in catholic traditions, like transubstantiation, celibate priesthood, and the need for confession, remained.
Explains that the english reformation was a movement by people and its government, not one where individuals alone made the choice to leave the catholic church.
Analyzes henry viii's letters and papers, foreign and domestic, vol. ii, sec. i, pg. 259, no.
At the start of the sixteenth century, the Reformation had put an ungracious end to the dependent unification that had prevailed under the Roman Catholic Church. In response to the growing sense of corruption in the church, the reformation began. Many people began opposing views of how Christian practices were expressed, which led to the formation and spread of Protestantism. While the Pope is head of the Catholic Church, Protestantism is a general term that refers to Christianity that is not subject to papal authority. (1.)
In this essay, the author
Explains that the reformation ended the dependent unification that had prevailed under the roman catholic church, leading to the formation and spread of protestantism.
Analyzes how the german augustinian monk, martin luther, nailed 95 arguments to a church door in wittenberg, which disputed the use and abuse of indulgences within the church, and encouraged the abolishment of monasteries.
Analyzes how king henry viii, a devout catholic, decided to divorce catherine of aragon. discontented by the pope's refusal to grant him divorce with papal authority, henry broke away from the church, becoming the supreme head of the church of england.
Explains how luther's movement rose in reputation, followed by calvin, a french protestant, who fled france after converting to protestantism.
Explains how the reformation led to a series of religious based wars that culminated in what we now call the thirty years' war.
The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century was a religious revolution that occurred within the Christian Church, which resulted in the establishment of Protestant Churches, who began breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church. Originally the movement was started by Martin Luther, who was a monk, a priest and a Professor of Biblical study at the University of Wittenberg (Fisher 335). Luther, with his great political influence as well as his prolific writing, most notably his 95 Thesis, began a movement intended to address the abuses of wealth within the church. Although there were many people who realized that the church needed reformation, at the time, Luther really had no intention to split the church. The Protestant Reformation was an intellectual, cultural, religious, and political, upheaval that would separate Catholic Europe and set in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent. In Christianity’s history, the Protestant Reformation was one of the most significant religious revolutions.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the protestant reformation of the 16th century was a religious revolution within the christian church, which resulted in the establishment of protestant churches.
Explains that martin luther was appalled by the misuse and abuse of the clergy, and the roman catholic and church financial fundraising that were particularly criticized.
Explains that the protestant reformation is mainly attributed to martin luther, but there were other significant figures of the renaissance who had also laid the foundation for the new ideals.
Explains that calvin disagreed with luther and zwingli, leading to calvinism. calvin believed that god had already decided the destiny of each person.
Explains that lutheranism, founded by martin luther, stemmed from calvin's ideas. the church of england also separated from the roman catholic church for political reasons.
Explains that the protestant reformation provoked the roman catholic church into a counter-reformation. the council of trent legislated the moral reform of the clergy, tightened administration, and officially recognized the pope as the absolute authority and earth vicar of god.
Explains the impact of the protestant reformation on society during the 16th century.
Analyzes how the division between the churches has taken away the full power of the church that the roman catholics once held. there is also a great diversity among protestant denominations.
Explains that although there is a division between the different churches, they do share similarities. the changes introduced by the second vatican in 1962 bring the protestant and catholic positions closer.
Throughout time, European history has been a major factor in the shaping of the modern world. The Renaissance sparked an era when people could look around and say to themselves, “How can I take this general topic and broaden it to be something bigger?” With this new idea came millions of brilliant and thought- provoked innovators that changed the name of what art, literature, and culture was thought to be. With thoughts growing and diverting from the prior Church- based philosophy of the majority of Europe came testing and changing of concepts previously thought to be true. New technologies enabled the curious to examine theories that they couldn’t make sense of, therefore, how the saw of world was rapidly expanding. Although many factors in
In this essay, the author
Explains the domino effect that occurred between three major events in european history shaped the world we know today.
Explains that the renaissance sparked an era of the mind; people could express themselves for the first time in their chosen art form.
Explains that the reformation led to numerous branches of protestant christianity and improved catholicism.
Reformation in Europe
In the early 16th century, the church was the most powerful institution in Europe, even stronger than government; however, in 1517, Martin Luther, a professor in Northern Germany, posted criticisms of the church on a chapel door which would cause profound reformation of the religious system in Europe. When the dissent spread out to the world, the Catholic religion was shattered and many people of high social rank, such as king and princes, either defended or opposed Luther’s argument. Also, most people left the Catholic Church and became Protestants. What made everything turn to chaos after Luther published his thesis and what happened after this?
In this essay, the author
Explains how martin luther's criticisms of the church shattered the catholic religion in europe. many people of high social rank, such as kings and princes, either defended or opposed his argument.
Describes luther as a german professor of theology who changed european history profoundly. he was disappointed with the church by seeing unfaithful priests.
Explains that luther was discontent with the catholic church when pope leo x started selling indulgences, a piece of paper which promised forgiveness of the sin. luther wrote 95 theses in latin and posted them on the chapel door.
Explains that martin luther and other reformers like john calvin and the anabaptists wanted to create new churches to be independent from the catholic church for several reasons.
Analyzes how john calvin, a frenchman, published the institutes of the christian religion, the most popular formulation of protestant theology. calvin rejected popery completely and argued that each church needed its own ministers.
Explains how king henry viii suppressed pope clement vii in order to get political power. he also encouraged people to list grievances against the english clergy.
Explains that the reformation was continuously grown by reformers such as calvin and luther, but there was also a movement called the counter-reformation within the catholic church, which opposed it.
Explains how protestantism spread across europe after the reformation, and how counter-reformers changed the system dramatically.
Opines that martin luther and reformers changed not only religion but also politics, society, and economy in europe.
In my essay I will attempt to give an overview of the many positive and negative changes that the reformation groups and individuals had to Roman Catholic Church and other churches. The reformation was a religious movement that started officially by Martin Luther challenging the sale of the indulgences in Roman Church.
In this essay, the author
Explains the reformation was a religious movement that started officially by martin luther challenging the sale of indulgences in roman church.
Explains that luther didn't understand why the bible was read in a latin language that the people did not understand. he wanted it to be read and studied so that ordinary people could understand it.
Explains that the reformation had significant and applicable effects on the church and to individuals.
Explains that martin luther's translation of the bible made it possible for regular people to read and understand the bible in a language that was consistent to them.
Explains that it gave people the ability to know everything that was going on in the roman catholic church.
Explains that the reformation also resulted in other christian religions e.g. lutheran, baptist etc. that gave new vibrancy of life to the true religion of god.
Explains that through the revolution monarchies power were strengthened during which time medieval europe the roman catholic church virtually ruled over everyone. rule of state became more secular.
Analyzes how luther abolished the catholic idea that usury was a sin and gave people an economic order of capitalism that led to prosperity of european people.
Explains that emperor constantine gave more religious choice and freedom of worship to the people of europe due to his conversion.
Explains the growth and development of churches as a result of end to persecution of christians, which strengthened and edified their spirit.
Explains how king henry viii stopped paying taxes to the pope, which meant that the church was no longer under papal oversight. king replaced the head of the church of england.
Explains that the decline of church powers meant individual monarchs and states acquired power and resources that paved way for modern-nation states. the reformation made it easier for the growth of the modern world.
Explains that luther's teachings helped christians understand that they have an open and direct communication with god, without a priest.
Explains that council of trent set out to counter reformation, confirmed training for priests to improve their intellectual and moral discipline by laying some new rules.
Explains that the reformation liberated some of the catholic nuns and monks trained to be celibates and the convents shut down a blessing for those who did not want to become nuns.
Explains that the holy roman empire lost power in a religious and politically fragmented empire.
Explains the rise of individualism and how money kept at home was used to start small businesses. non-landed wealthy people started to create a better life for themselves.
Explains that protestant and catholic groups set a hospitality attitude towards each other and this caused church disunity. new churches sprung up with different extreme divergent beliefs where reformation movement was taking place.
Explains that some used the bible to supress others ideas and scholasticism.
Explains that reformation was a curse to some of the nuns who were i coventry.
Explains that the roman catholic church lost its power to the king, which meant loss of resources and financial instability due to cut down of the tax payments to pope. popes corruptions led him to lose focus of spiritual leadership.
Explains that before the reformation people could buy their way to heaven and the church was corrupt depriving people of their property, which led people to poverty and mislead them to incoherent doctrines and masses.
Explains that reformation led to bloody religious persecution of the believers who belonged to the minority sect by the majority.
Explains that separation of state and church power meant that people had free will to be religious or secular. kings strengthened and increased their power over people, pope and against emperor.
Explains that the church was no longer seen as an independent institution separate from secular governance, rather as a less important body in the society that was obliged to agree with the state.
Explains that erasmus, a christian humanist who had set the pase for luther, was disappointed because religious revolution took humanism in the wrong direction.
Explains that king henry used the reformation for his personal advantage/misuse of power married many wives as opposed to scriptures.
Explains that the reformation caused disunity in germany because they lacked a centralized economy. religion was ruled by princes or the city council in geneva.
Explains that a great disagreement between protestants and catholics erupted on the side of art, causing disparity between artefacts made in the north and south.
Explains that the disunited religions wanted to gain power over the others that were weak and form a state religion.
Explains the major characters that contributed to the reformations in the early churches e.g. martin luther, john calvin among others.
Explains that the reformers were brilliant elite and deep spiritual men and through this reformation process another branch of christianity sprouted "protestantism". the revolution had both positive and negative effects on christianity, political system, and social lives.
Explains that the printing press invented by johann gothenburg brought a major change that allowed the reformers to freely print their views and also helped them translate the bible to the language more common to people.
Explains that education became more important in society because people wanted to become aware of the teachings in the scriptures as well as the doctrines the roman catholic church were teaching.
Explains that reformation led people to democracy, with their own concept of spiritual faith, and brought about religious upheavals in western europe.
Opines that the reformation was an important period in church as it impacted people socially, economically and politically.
The protestant reformation of 16th century had both: immediate and long term effects. Thus, we can see that it was a revolution of understanding the essence of religion, and of what God is. The protestant reformation is said to a religious movement. However, it also influenced the economical, political and social life of people. The most global, short term effect of the reformation was the reevaluation of beliefs, and, as a result, the loss of authority of the Holy Roman Empire. The long term effects were: the emergence of new heretical movements, the declining of papacy, thus the reevaluation of people’s view on the church and life values.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the protestant reformation of 16th century had both immediate and long-term effects. it influenced the economic, political, and social life of people.
Explains that the reformation was associated with the publication of martin luther's ninety-five theses, which showed the protest against the "business" made on religious people.
Analyzes how luther's reformation was the best because it directly outpaced the innovative printing technologies, which helped to spread the reformatory ideas.
Analyzes the causes of the protestant reformation of 16th century, including the permissiveness of papacy, improper use of bible, and manipulating people, with help of religion.
During the 16th Century there was a religious revolution in Christianity throughout Europe. Martin Luther, a German monk, revolted against the Church because of what he saw as hypocrisy of the Catholic clergy and authority against Biblical beliefs. This was counter acted by the Catholic Church in an internal, peaceful and reform minded Catholic Reformation and by a conflicting and fighting Counter- Reformation to stop the spread of his teachings. Martin Luther believed the Clergy’s blatant disregard of duties and rules and the selling of indulgences justified his revolt while the Catholic Church disagreed both internally reforming the Church though rules and regulations and by counteracting and fighting though enforcement to stop it.
In this essay, the author
Describes how martin luther, a german monk, revolted against the church because of hypocrisy of the catholic clergy and authority against biblical beliefs.
Explains that martin luther revolted against the catholic church because of hypocrisy of ities and clergy with their disregard of duties and rules which was against biblical beliefs.
Explains that the catholic reformation began with pope paul iii calling the council of trent which led to a spiritual renewal of the church.
Explains how pope paul iii started the counter reformation with the creation of supreme sacred congregation of the roman universal inquisition, a committee that had the power to arrest, imprison, and execute suspected heretics.
Explains that martin luther's revolt against the catholic church was caused by corruption and religious problems of the church.
As a monarch, the life of Henry VIII is one of which many do not attempt to describe because of the rich amount of history that goes along with him. No king has left such a profound impact on the past accounts of his country, or has been the focus of controversial topics that have made lasting contributions to his country. His means were immoral, but because of the greatness that he achieved, we look beyond his imperfection.
In this essay, the author
Explains that henry vii refused to marry catherine until her parents, ferdinand of aragon and isabella of castile, paid the dowry they owed him.
Analyzes how catherine parr wrote this letter to henry during the siege of boulogne in 1544. she was a beloved stepmother to mary, elizabeth, and edward
Explains that henry was known for his politically beneficial marriages with spain and germany. the dissolution of monasteries was politically a key feature.
Analyzes excerpts from "defense of the seven sacraments", treatise against luther.
States that king henry viii: hans holbein and his legacy. n.p., 23 may 2009. web. 23 nov. 2013.
Analyzes how the life of henry viii is one of which many do not attempt to describe because of the rich amount of history that goes along with him.
Opines that while the distance of time and account of days neither is long nor many of your majesty's absence, the want of their presence, so much desired and beloved by them, makes them cannot quietly pleasure in anything until they hear from their highness.
Analyzes how henry's book, "declaration of the seven sacraments" against martin luther shows that he is against protestantism.
Explains that hans holbein painted many self-portraits of henry during his time. he was a renaissance man and remarkably brilliant.
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire. The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization. The Reformation ended the religious unity of Europe and ushered in 150 years of religious warfare. By the time the conflicts had ended, the political and social geography in the west had fundamentally changed. The Reformation would have been revolutionary enough of itself, but it coincided in time with the opening of the Western Hemisphere to the Europeans and the development of firearms as effective field weapons.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the protestant reformation of the sixteenth century ended the middle ages and began a new era in the history of western civilization.
Explains that many bishops and abbots bore themselves as secular rulers rather than as servants of the church.
Opines that the renaissance and humanism partly introduced and greatly fostered these conditions. love of luxury was soon associated with the revival of greco-roman paganism.
Explains that the reformation destroyed the unity of faith and ecclesiastical organization of the christian peoples of europe, cut millions off from the true catholic church, and produced a lamentable shallowness in religious life.
Opines that the reformation caused indescribable suffering among the people in every land in which it found ingress.
Analyzes how the roman church responded to the reformers' demands with the counter-reformation. the jesuits, founded by ignatius of loyola, aggressively supported catholic doctrine.
Explains that martin luther was a pivotal figure of western civilization and christianity. john calvin created the patterns and thought that would dominate western culture throughout the modern period.
Opines that the protestant reformation was a major building block of history, and some would say our country.
Different interpretations led to disagreements among the religious people. Near the 16th century, the protestant movement emerged in reaction to medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. Protestantism influenced social, economic, political, and cultural life in any area that it gained a foothold (Nelson, E. C.).
It is one of three major branches of Christianity. The other two are Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
In this essay, the author
Explains that protestantism influenced social, economic, political, and cultural life in any area that it gained a foothold. it is one of three major branches of christianity.
Explains that martin luther's posting of his 95 theses was his first act of dissent. the movement evolved as more people agreed with luther’s ideas and arguments, and the church rejected them.
Explains that martin luther, john calvin, and others led the reformers who broke from the roman catholic church due to abusive ecclesiological structures.
Explains that different versions of the bible are based on different religions, such as the american standard version, new century, and new revised standard.