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The Differences in John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham's Versions of Utilitarianism

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The Differences in John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham's Versions of Utilitarianism

In what ways did John Stuart Mill's version of utilitarianism differ from that of Jeremy Bentham? Which do you consider preferable?

The Cambridge International Dictionary of English defines utilitarianism as "the system of thought which states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is the one which most benefits the most people". This is the main idea of the system of thought and it is from this the beliefs and opinions of John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873), Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1832) and other early utilitarians were developed. Jeremy Bentham, a friend of J. S. Mill's father and the mentor of J. S. Mill, is usually considered the founder of British utilitarianism. J. S. Mill adapted Bentham's ideas and philosophies to meet the criticism utilitarianism encountered in Victorian times, expressing his version in the essays Utilitarianism (1861) and On Liberty (1859). Although the differences between the ideas of Bentham and Mill are very few, Mill's adjustments are important and greatly alter the basic foundations of the system.

To fully understand the origins of the ideas and opinions expressed by Mill and Bentham it is useful to examine their backgrounds and influences. John Stuart Mill was the eldest son of James Mill, a British historian, economist and philosopher. He was educated entirely by his father, who was a strict disciplinarian, and by the age of 10 had read all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities of the time. His main reading, however, was history and by this age had read the whole works of the historian Herodotus, and was acquainted with the satirist Lucian, the histori...

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... based in belief, not in the supernatural, but in the reliability of science to dictate the difference between right and wrong and make our moral decisions for us.

Bibliography:

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Burr and Goldinger, Philosophy and Contemporary Issues. New York: Macmillan, 1992

Dinwiddy, John. Bentham. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1989

Warburton, Nigel. Philosophy: The Classics. London: Routledge, 1999

Russell, Bertrand. Western Philosophical Thought. Unwin University Books, 1961

Knowles, Dudley. Political Philosophy. London: Routledge, 2001

Crisp, Roger. Mill: On Utilitarianism. London and New York: Routledge, 1997

Mill, J. S. On Liberty. Penguin Books, 1982

www.utilitarian.org

www.utm.edu/research/iep (Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy)

www.philosophypages.com

www.cambridge.dictionary.org (Cambridge International Dictionary of English )
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