The analysis of the Irish economic problem, the Great Famine, was a remarkable topic to study by several classical authors such as, Thomas Malthus, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo or William Senior. A contextualization skim of the economic characteristics of the country is required in order to know about their main ideas with respect to the topic, taking into account the aspects like the land property, the political power and the relation between Ireland and England.
The tense relationship between Ireland and England lasted for many years. There were constant attempts from the English government to exercise control over its neighbors, which were, at the same time, answered with several insurrections.
In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and…show more content…
In this essay, the author
Opines that the analysis of the irish economic problem, the great famine, was a remarkable topic to study by several classical authors such as, thomas malthus, john stuart mill, david ricardo or william senior.
Explains that the tense relationship between ireland and england lasted for many years. there were constant attempts from the english government to exercise control over its neighbors, which were answered with several insurrections.
Explains that the united kingdom of great britain and ireland was created through the act of union in 1801, and the pretended manufacturing sector was not able to emerge, as english textile surpluses absorbed all the irish market demand.
Explains that the irish famine had an immense effect on the demography of the country that lasted for decades.
Explains that the irish population was british subject, so the response to the humanitarian crisis had to be given by the westminster parliament.
Analyzes how adam smith's inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations had a deep impact on the academic and political english world.
Analyzes the irish famine through the population-capital concept, mainly from malthus' population theory point of view.
Argues that the only way of changing this cycle was by adjusting the ratio population to capital, either reducing the first one or increasing the second.
Analyzes the malthus trap reasoning, which emphasizes a rigid dependence of population growth upon the food supply.
Explains that the cyclical reduction of population through famines is a necessary condition for the efficiency of an economy.
Analyzes how the english academics blamed the irish population for this situation. the high natality rate is a typical trait of the agriculture economies, while the potato crop was the only feasible production.
Analyzes the arguments against any kind of charity policy, not only during the great famine but also prior to it.
Opines that the argument did not change when the great famine became a severe issue. it would be an shock for the standards of our society today to understand such behavior.
Explains that john stuart mill's principle of political economy (1848) was the undisputed bible of the 19th century for the economic world.
Analyzes how richard lebow analyzed mill's arguments stating that it can be identified two contrary visions; one arguing for the market on its own and the other for a state’s intervention.
Explains that irish people working on land had no right over them, the land was divided into bits, and the competition for a plot was hard. the improvement of ireland's economic conditions depended on the changes of the cottier system.
Analyzes how the recommendation regarding the cottier-tenant system and how to solve the problems caused by it, are surprisingly heterogenic, even contradictory. he did not have a consistent opinion about the best policies to be applied in order to improve the land ownership system.
Analyzes how the "two mills" opposed removing the peasant system and made strong allegations about the unacceptability of the land expropriation to the irish aristocracy.
Explains that the government would correct the irish situation without any need of capital. the relation capital-population was the key idea of the classical economists.
As a result, the community growth intensifies to a point where the income per capita will be so low that its maintenance would turn into untenable; hence the population suffers and contracts, occasioning a new cycle again. Therefore, the theory emphasizes a rigid dependence of population growth upon the food supply.
Following this reasoning, it could be inferred that the cyclical reduction of population through famines is a necessary condition for the efficiency of an economy. Therefore, by clearing the surplus population from the land, the market rebalances itself. So at that point, it can be suggested that a definition for overpopulation is the moment when a community is too large to maximize the efficient production of its economy; so it would need a reduction in numbers that would raise income per…show more content…
Who wrote Principle of Political Economy (1848), it was nicknamed by Mark Blaug as the undisputed bible of the 19th century for the economic world.
Richard Lebow’s analyzed Mill’s arguments sustaining that it can be identified two contrary visions; one arguing for the market on its own and the other for the necessity of a state’s intervention. This classification of two clearly opposed views is also raised by Gide and Rist in the following statement “During the first half of his life, Mill was an individualist who was deeply committed to utilitarianism. During the second half, he was a socialist who remained a champion of individual liberty” (1947, page
Philio Gabriel (2010) stated that John Stuart Mill was a very intelligent philosopher of history. He studied since young and ended his working life by working with the parliament. Throughout his lifetime, as a philosopher he brought and suggested the concept of liberty in the society.
In this essay, the author
Explains that john stuart mill was a very intelligent philosopher of history. he studied since young and ended his working life by working with the parliament.
Analyzes mill's concept of liberty, which is limited with the state’s authority. he adopted the utilitarianism which means the system of thought by states regarding the best actions and decisions.
Analyzes how mill's concept of liberty focused on the individuals and 'defend the rights of individuals which involved civil liberties, individuality and personal autonomy.'
Explains that philio gabriel (2010) stated that mill agreed that this principle will be producing a huge feeling of pleasure and facing less pain for individuals. non-democratic government is needed.
Explains that mill's liberty focused more towards the rights of the individuals by voicing out opinions.
Explains that mill believed that human behaviour is subjective and changeable. mill stressed that only true expression will be allowed.
Explains mill's concept of liberty and philio gabriel’s statement that itative of society needs to be limited towards the right of individuals.
Explains that mill's book 'on liberty' highlighted the application of liberty, stating that individuals are not accountable towards the society but answerable towards their behaviour.
By the 1900s the high levels of poverty, eviction and enforced emigration had disappeared for the great Irish majority. Even though post Famine Ireland saw the continuation of small farms, the way Irish farmers saw agriculture changed. There was a great fall in the acreage devoted to potato cultivation from 2.1 million acres (1840s) to 587,000 acres (1908) . Instead of cultivating potatoes, pasture farming became more capital and by the end of the century Ireland saw twice as many dry cattle and sheep than 50 years prior to the famine . Additionally, between 1854-6 the Crimean War gave a temporary stimulus to the demand for grain.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the act of union in 1800 set the tone for the rest of irish history.
Analyzes how daniel o'connell's zeal for reform influenced parliament in passing the catholic emancipation act in 1829. his actions contributed to the changing nature of the irish question.
Explains that the whig government passed the great reform act in 1832, which was a disappointment to the irish, but the o'connellites gained power in the 1833 general election with 39 mps.
Explains that the great famine of 1845-9 was a turning point in the changing nature of all aspects of the irish question.
Analyzes how the famine brought about the awakening of the military strand in the irish nationalist cause.
Explains that gladstone's 1867 franchise reform act increased the irish electorate by 27%. the land war of 1879-82 catalysed these changes.
Explains that the secret ballot act proved that evolution in british democracy contributed to the change of the irish question. the act helped butt's movement progress; he cut even more effectively into the constituency of catholic whiggism.
Explains that the most effective franchise reform act was passed in 1884. it increased the franchise in ireland by 200% and brought the newly politicised tenant farmers into the electorate.
Explains the decline in acreage devoted to potato cultivation and pasture farming in ireland after the famine.
Explains that landlords virtually vanished and the great majority of irish holdings became to be owned by irish peasant proprietors, sons and grandsons of men who ‘often were treated with less respect than cattle’.
John Stuart Mill was a political economist that believed in trying to make the division between classes smaller through mainly taxing inheritance and shorter working hours for middle and lower class. John Stuart Mill was also very big into Women's Rights and fighting for Women's equality. John Stuart Mill is the godson of Jeremy Bentham and son of James Mill, who are both huge figures in the economic world. John stuart Mill was born in 1805 at 13 Rodney Street in the Pentonville area of London. John Stuart Mill grew up in London. As he was growing up his father James Mill began to educate John Stuart Mill by learning Greek at age three and and Latin at age 8. He continued to his education by his father as he was growing up by studying world
In this essay, the author
Explains that john stuart mill was a political economist who believed in making the division between classes smaller through taxing inheritance and shorter working hours for middle and lower class.
Explains that john stuart mill had a nervous breakdown and major depression three years after working at east india company. mill believed in jeremy bentham's theory and utilitarianism but instead of focusing on the negative he wanted to focus on positive.
Explains that mill believed in a middle ground between laissez-faire capitalism and socialism. he believed that people can do anything they want to as long as it does not harm others.
Explains that john stuart mill greatly influenced the nineteenth-century british thought. he had a new way of approaching different topics through positivity and working towards equality.
During the mid-nineteenth century in Great Britain, the industrial revolution was in full swing and ideas were beginning to exponentially grow. These philosophical and practical ideas changed the way people thought, worked, and lived their everyday life. A few of the many ideas and inventions that arose were the railroad, steam power, powered machines, and utilitarianism. Utilitarianism was coined by John Stuart Mill and has been a popular way of thinking for over a century. In this paper, I will argue that John Stuart Mill’s idea of utilitarianism provides citizens with freedom along with a strong protection of their rights, and without it people would be oppressed by their government.
In this essay, the author
Argues that john stuart mill's idea of utilitarianism provides citizens with freedom along with a strong protection of their rights.
Explains that john stuart mill was born in pentonville, england, where his father, james, began his rigorous education. he was studying greek, english, and arithmetic until he was eight years old.
Explains that james mill's son, john, was taught to write fluently at the age of eight, and began to study philosophy and advanced mathematics.
Recounts how they read thucydides, anacreon, and electra of sophocles in the year 1814. they also read euclid, homer's odyssey, demosthenes and aristotle’s organon.
Analyzes how john's father clearly taught his son to be deeply engaged with the studies of liberal arts. mill received an invitation to accompany sir samuel to france, which shows john’s motivation for writing the letter.
Explains that john stuart mill read the history of the french revolution and was enraged with the topic. his views were further influenced when he continued to live and learn with bentham.
Analyzes how mill's mental and nervous breakdown was caused by utilitarianism, which he learned and studied around for most of his life. his depression returned eight years later while his father was on his deathbed.
Analyzes how john stuart mill's struggles for the prior years of writing on liberty are directly reflected in the pages of his text.
Analyzes how john stuart mill fights for human rights on both the small and large scale. freedom and liberty go hand in hand with rights.
Explains that john stuart mill was the trailblazer for the philosophy of utilitarianism. it is a hedonistic approach where good is directly correlated with pleasure rather than rights.
Analyzes how utilitarianism can be applied to oppression in any form. mill believed that women's suffrage was the most important service he could perform as a member of parliament.
Argues that by granting rights to women, there will no longer be inequality within marriage between a man and his wife.
Analyzes mill's belief that it is impossible to know the true nature of women based on behavior. mill uses behavior to show and justify his teachings that women need to have liberty.
Analyzes how john stuart mill used the debunking of the stereotypical "nature" of women as a maneuver to influence the rest of parliament and promote the importance of utilitarianism and individuality.
Explains that utilitarianism protects liberty by putting a diversity of interests aside and finding common interests that would benefit the individual and the whole.
Explains that mill used utilitarianism as a means to support individuality, which in turn supports the nation.
Explains that the only freedom which deserves the name is that of pursuing one's own good in our ownway. each is the proper guardian of his own health, whether bodily, mental or spiritual.
Opines that john stuart mill is a true visionary for the rights and liberty of all humans.
The Great Ireland Potato Famine was a horrible event that had many lasting effects. Some of these effects were starvation, disease, poverty, emigration, and lost traits. These effects plagued mostly western Ireland, but had an overall effect on all of Ireland. Many of the traditional ways of economics and society changed drastically because of the famine. Many people also blamed the British for letting the famine get so bad. These effects will be discussed throughout the paper.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the great ireland potato famine had many lasting effects, including starvation, disease, poverty, emigration, and lost traits. traditional economics and society changed drastically because of the famine.
Explains that the irish people were dependant on potatoes as a source of food, and when the blight struck, the people starved to death. they had no other knowledge of farming other crops.
Explains that diseases played a big part in the deaths of the irish people, including typhus and relapsing fevers, small pox, tuberculosis, dysentery, marasmus, and other famine disorders.
Opines that the irish's deaths remind them of the holocaust and how they were buried. many of these graves remain unmarked to this day.
Explains that the irish people were left with no jobs during the famine. the landlords owned practically everything in ireland, making it difficult for them to invest in other ways to generate income.
Explains that emigration caused the population in ireland to drop by a further 3 million during the famine. people had no jobs, were kicked out of their home, and had hope for jobs in other countries.
Explains that the majority of irish people emigrated to america, canada, australia, and britain. they brought with them a deep hatred of the government back in the uk, which they blamed for the famine and suffering.
Describes the conditions of the ships that the irish traveled on, which were known as "coffin ships." the ships were packed with people, and there were no medicines to calm the fevers.
Analyzes how the irish were depicted as violent and a plague to the american society. they were still poor, carried over the diseases that they had back at home, and were crime ridden.
Opines that ireland lost many of its original traits due to the famine. some traits, like the irish language, were on an extreme decline during the period.
Explains that the british government did nothing to help the irish people right off the bat, allowing landlords to continue to collect their dues and export a huge amount of food from ireland to britain.
Explains that britain was slow in responding to the food crisis compared to other countries. the french government responded to their food scarcity by importing large amounts of wheat and free importation of corn.
Explains that irish people are still dependent on the potato crop. the famine is gone, but the disease that caused it is not. they estimate that 300 million is spent annually on spraying potatoes.
Explains that rural peasant ireland was completely restructured as a result of the great famine. a war was in the making and everyone knew that it was bound to happen.
Explains that the great irish famine was a huge tragedy to the irish people. it ended and life tried to return to normal. many uprisings went into effect, trying to bring back what was lost.
Cites abbot, patrick, braa, dean m., crawford, e. margaret, and douglas c.
For Mill, the freedom that enables each individual to explore his or her own particular way of life is essential for a generous and diverse development of humanity. The only source of potential within society to further continue human development is the spontaneity or creativity that lies within each individual. Mill has a utilitarian view on freedom. He was especially keen on individual liberty because it allowed the greatest measure of happiness. His concern is not to declare liberty as a natural right but to rather set out the appropriate constraints within ‘Civil or Social liberty’. Civil liberty is defined as the limit society can exert its legitimate power over each individual and social liberty has much to do with a political principle
In this essay, the author
Explains mill's utilitarian view on freedom. he was particularly keen on individual liberty because it allowed the greatest measure of happiness.
“If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind” (Mill, 2002, pg.14) John Stuart Mill, an English philosopher of the 19th century, and said to be one of the most influential thinkers in the areas regarding social theory, political theory, and political economy had strong views regarding free speech. In his following quote, he states that if all mankind had an opinion or an action, and another individual had a different opinion, mankind would not be justified in silencing that one individual just like that one individual, if given the power to do so, would not be justified in silencing all of mankind. Mill’s argument is that every individual has value, meaning, and power within their opinions and that we should not be the ones to stop them from having the right to state their opinion. Their actions and who they are as a person should not be silenced. In the spirit of the greater good of mankind and freedom of expression, one must have the right to liberty and free expression without being silenced and the right to one’s own freedom.
In this essay, the author
Quotes john stuart mill as saying that if all mankind had an opinion or an action, and another individual had a different opinion, mankind would not be justified in silencing that one individual.
Analyzes how john stuarts most famous essay, on liberty, came out in 1859. his father, james mill, who was a strict utilitarian, raised him.
Argues that liberty is important to protect individuals against political tyranny of overzealous rulers. mill believes that public opinion is not a good basis for the government to act upon.
Opines that mankind should not have the right to silence another individual opinions or actions because every human is entitled to free expression without being silenced.
Analyzes mill's belief that the truth should be prosecuted because people will come to understand it, its flaws, roots, and as a result, it'll come out.
Explains mills' belief that every individual has the rights to their own individual freedom. he believes that an individual should be able to express their experience and knowledge as they see it.
Explains that mill believes in the freedom of individual liberty, but he believes that the only time it is acceptable for individuals or members of the society to interfere with individual freedom is when there's a concern for protection.
Analyzes how the episode america alone on tvo's, the agenda discusses an issue that can be sensitive and offensive to many individuals in society.
Explains that mills' response to mark steyn's speech issue would be that he should continue publishing maclean’s articles and that the government should not intervene.
Explains that steyn did not attack muslims in any way by saying things like they are dirty or that they need to go back to their own countries. mills believes that once we start silencing human beings, we rob the human race.
Opines that mark steyn is free to have his freedom of thoughts and opinions, but the idea that some might take his approach offensive is a whole different issue.
Argues that society has the right and duty to ensure that their children develop into rational and moral human beings.
Opines that mills' theory of liberty and human rights is approachable and realistic. he believes that mankind would not be justified in silencing an individual.
John Stuart Mill's On Liberty
Imagine going through life not questioning anything that anyone tells you. Anything that is said to be true you would just agree with and not question the statement for yourself. Imagine how blindly you would go through life not finding anything out for yourself. A good example of this is something that just happened to me today. I have always been told that the population of the United States is 240 million and I have been told that for the longest time, even recently within the last month.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how john stuart mill illustrates this point in his book, on liberty.
Explains that mill claims that we may not interfere with a person’s liberty unless her or his acting freely will bring harm to others.
Analyzes how mill anticipates objections to his claim and tries to resolve them. the issue of agreement/disagreement has no relationship to the validity of the statement.
Opines that mill's answer to these questions is that the more and more opinions that are obtained inevitably, it is not necessarily true that all the consequences of them will be good.
In 1859, a philosopher named John Stuart Mill wrote a book called On Liberty which discusses his defense of “toleration” in a liberalistic view. This view intertwines with the concept of utilitarianism, a system that Mill contributed to so drastically, that even after 154 years of possible obliteration from reviewers, his efforts, but more importantly his work, has not only been approved, but also embraced, thanks to its highly appropriate symbolism. This book has postulated some philosophical questions, and through his five chapters, he discusses his favoring of toleration, but only to a certain extent.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how john stuart mill's book, on liberty, discusses his defense of "toleration" in a liberalistic view, intertwines with the concept of utilitarianism.
Analyzes mill's concept of "liberty," which is reflected and supported in many doctrines. mill refutes the idea that humans can exercise their basic rights, but cannot abuse them.
Analyzes how john mill's argument about true beliefs being good for society deals with the plausibility of the majority being right and the minority being wrong.
Explains that john mill believes that if one understands truth, one should respond to arguments about the valid statement and that people use liberty to argue, in example, free of harm.
Analyzes john stuart mill's defense of toleration. he believes that some ways of life are better than others and that we shouldn't tolerate every way.