Adolescents are involved in the difficult task of identifying themselves and making important life decisions. (Smits, Soenens, Vansteenkiste, Luyckx, & Goossens, 2010). The support from parents seems to greatly assist adolescents in their identity formation process. Two theories that have been used in research to examine adolescent identity are the psychosocial development of adolescents and Bandura’s social learning theory. Psychosocial development as theorized by Erikson has eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2010).
Adolescence is a significant developmental period for teenagers because of the adaptations they are forced to comply with including physical, emotional, cognitive, and social changes. Adolescents are given various developmental tasks that are often difficult to perform while they are facing stressors such as these changes. One task involves finding one’s self or identity. The adolescent’s identity is a construction of drives, abilities, beliefs, and individual history (Marcia, 1980). In addition to searching for personal identity, it is important for the adolescent to establish autonomy within his/her social context.
Garber, J., Kriss, M. R., Koch, M., & Lindholm, L. (1988). Recurrent depression in adolescents: A follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 49–54. Garland, A. & Zigler, E. (1993).
The last stage is that of ego integrity versus despair, and this is the time when the way the other conflicts were decided has an influence. If the preceding conflicts were not suitably handled, despair may result in later life (Liebert & Spiegler, 1982, 88-92). Piaget was most interested in the learning stages for the child, while Erikson carried his stages through the life cycle. Both indicate how the stage of adolescence is part of a continuum, however, prepared for by childhood and leading to adulthood. Further research may differentiate even more divisions over the adolescent years.
For the purpose of this research we will identify educational transitions from junior high or middle school to high school ,and will later describe how research in solution focused therapies can help alleviate the symptoms of depressions in adolescences during these transitions. It is hypothesized that adolescents that are transitioning from primary and middle education to high school have a increased symptoms of depression. The following literary review will attempt to support and identify this hypothesis. Adolescent Depression Depression is common among the adolescent population with onset around the age of 13 to 18 years of age. During this time children are faced with the pressures of adjustment, expected academic performance, puberty, peer pressure and peer conflict.
One of the most interesting neurological changes that are observed in adolescents is that the connections between neurons continue to be refined through pruning (Rutter, 2007). The amount of brain matter tends to increase throughout childhood, but a decline in grey matter is found in adolescence due to pruning of the synaptic connections (Rutter, 2007). Pruning is typically discussed as a major event that occurs in early childhood after the proliferation of connections made during infancy (Santrock, 2011). Research indicates that significant pruning and refine... ... middle of paper ... ...-pituitary-adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: Normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 69-85. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000054 King, L.A. (2010).
The review examines the current research on adolescent development and how it is effected by parenting styles. Taking into account the changes that occur over time to parents this review shows the fluidity of parenting styles and the stressors that cause those changes. Parenting Techniques: Stressors That Affect Them and the Effects They Have on Adolescent Behavior and Adjustment Parenting style is known to be a high factor in determining the adjustment of adolescents. This review examines parenting styles, effects on parenting styles, and the effects parenting styles have on adolescents. A family as defined by Schroeder & Mowen (2012) is on of the most import agent of socialization for adolescents.
As the infant grows older the attention escalates towards the direction of the caregiver. John Bowlby(1958, 1969, 1973, 1980) pioneer of the attachment theory was involved in research regarding the emotional connection between the adult and infant and he believed that the early relationships determined the behaviour and emotional development of a child. In an early Bowlby (1944) study he discovered children who had an unsettling upbringing where more likely to become juvenile delinquents. His work is constantly open to criticism and has been revisited with further research. Subsequent research has based measuring security and insecurity in a child from an early age using the Strange Situation Test.
Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development 2. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development Starting with the Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development, this hypothesis was made to disclose human advancement identifying with how the brain functions. Sigmund Freud's hypothesis of psychosexual advancement depends on the thought that folks assume a vital part in dealing with their kids' sexual and forceful drives amid the initial couple of years of life to cultivate their appropriate improvement. The hypothesis proposes that identity is for the most part settled by the age of five. Early encounters assume a vast part in identity improvement and keep on influencing conduct sometime down the road.
In each stage the individual will be confronted with a challenge and hopefully master that challenge before moving onto the next stage. Stages 1-5 focus on childhood development from birth up until adolescence. An interesting aspect of his theory is that through in each of the 8 stages our biological force is constantly negotiating with sociocultural forces and depending on how the individual reconciles this forces will determine if the individual carries on the virtue into the remaining developmental life stages. The first stage in Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development is Trust vs. Mistrust, which is characterized by oral-sensory and occurs from birth until age 2 years old. During this stage the infant depends on the parents to fulfill it’s basic needs.