The Congress of Vienna

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1. Discuss the congress of Vienna. Who were the leaders?

- To rebuild Ausstria after Napoleon had destroyed it.
i. Austria: Prince Metternich ii. Russia: Alexander I iii. Prussia: King Frederick William III iv. England: George III, but by then he was insane, so Lord Castleregh filled in
v. France: Tallyrand

2. List the Russian Czars from 1814-1914
a. Alexander I: helped defeat Napoleon and went to the congress of Vienna
b. Nicholas I: stopped the “Decemberist Revolt”
c. Alexander II: stopped the Crimean War and freed the serfs
d. Alexander III: reactionary (shut down schools)
e. Nicholas II: Tran Siberian Railroad, Russian Revolution, overthrown

3. Discuss the Crimean War.
-Was to decide who would guard the Holy Shrines in Palestine
Russia wanted to be in the Mediterranean Sea along with being in the Black Sea
-they blew up the Turkish fleet in the Black Sea to do so
England and France didn’t want Russia to be there and they go and attack Russia. Most English and French die from food poisoning. France ends up guarding the shrines and England keeps the Russians at Bay.

4. Explain the English parliament and its political parties.
- House of Lords: appointed by the King or Queen for life.
- House of Commons: elected
- 1911: Power of the purse switches to the House of Commons
- Torries (conservatives): rich land owners, wanted to build an empire, leader was Disraeli
- Whigs (liberals): rich businessmen, free trade, new rich, leader was Gladstone

5. The unification of Italy.
- France, Austria, and the Pope opposed the unification. Mazzini had attempted to start a revolution but had failed because he was a bad organizer. Count Camillo Cavor was the Prime Minister of Sardinia Piedmont. Cavor asked England and France to be their allies. Napoleon III decided to become military alliances with Sardinia Piedmont. Austria controls Venetia and Lombardy and they tax the wine, liquor and tobacco. Cavor “sneaks” these items in, in a way that would upset the Austrians. Cavor is really trying to start a fight. So when Austria declares war on Sardinia Piedmont, Cavor goes to France and gets Napoleon’s army to come fight the Austrians. Cavor hired the Red Shirts, who were led by Garavaldi to go from the north and Cavor went through the south, so they tried to unify Italy. The Pope realized this and told Napoleon what Cavor was doing. So Napoleon sends his army to protect Rome and the Papal states. The only states Cavor didn’t get were Lombardy and the Papal States.

6. The Unification of Germany
- Prince Metternich set up the Carlsbad Decree, which was against German nationalism. Otto von Bismarck was from East Prussia and was a wealthy land owner.

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