He detected that a substance he called "penicillin" destroyed bacteria. Then in the late 1930's, two British scientists invented a method of extracting penicillin from the mold. This was the start of developing new drugs to treat diseases and bacteria. Over the years, numerous thousands of antibiotic material have been found in nature as well as produced chemically but, there are few that are safe and useful. However the ones that are safe and effective have saved many lives and have helped extend life expectancy.
Ehrlich however was especially famous for his procedure called chemotherapy. This procedure was described as stained bacteria using Robert Koch's procedures. As he worked, he noted that the dye would not color bacteria unless it joined with bacteria's substances, which if it combined, the bacteria usually get killed. He proposed that if he is able to find a chemical or a dye that kills bacteria without harming humans, he could develop a heal that would be inserted into people to kill germs, thus curing the disease. He later discovered trypan red, a dye that cured a laboratory mouse from the sleeping sickness (Zimmerman, 2003).
Fluroquinolones cannot bind to the enzymes DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase if these enzymes are mut... ... middle of paper ... ...ed in the case of the antibiotic known as vancomycin. In order to treat the vicious bacterium, the drug vancomycin was introduced with hope to provide a therapy for the infection. However, eventually a resistant gene toward this drug emerged and began to spread throughout hospitals. “These strains, known as vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), we progeny of MRSA that had acquired a set of five genes that travel together as a “cassette” and confer vancomycin” (Walsh & Fishbach, 2009). Unfortunately, the enzyme located in the resistant gene of the bacteria allows the target to change, which does not permit the binding of vancomycin.
It is often referred to as the third wave in biotechnology. The products also have a faster and easier way into the market as the products don’t have the lengthy review times products usually must undergo. Medical Biotechnology The third sub factor is the healthcare or medical Biotechnology. It is also called red Biotechnology in terms of science. This factor is by far the most important factor in the biotechnology industry.
In this world, there are countless pathogenic microorganisms, and over the last century, scientists have been trying to find antibiotics that rid those microorganisms. An antibiotic is a medicine that destroys or inhibits the growth of a microbe’s cell wall; microbes cannot survive without their cell wall. For example, penicillin is an antibiotic that has been around since the early 1900s; Alexander Fleming, a scientist, discovered it. At first, many microorganisms were highly susceptible to penicillin, but over time most microorganisms evolved by developing a type of resistance to the antibiotic. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Stenotropnomonas maltophilia,
Antibiotics have always been some of the key contributing factors in the medicinal industry. An example of past antibiotics that greatly contributed to medicine is Penicillin. Penicillin was created in the late 1920s and received widespread clinical use during World War II by helping soldiers who were wounded and risked infection, because of its properties that prevent the creation of peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria. However, the older forms of Penicillin have been rendered completely useless because of the rapid evolution of bacteria to resist Penicillin. This has created an eternal race regarding whether people can develop the antibiotics to defeat resistant bacteria fast enough (McDonald, 2013).
Then in the 1940s the fully developed penicillin was created. The creation of penicillin cured a wide variety of diseases, which led to the world excelling in growth, and penicillin improved the way of medicine at the time. The variety of diseases cured by penicillin made it a must have antibiotic. Penicillin was used to cure multiple diseases including syphilis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, gangrene, pneumonia, diphtheria, and scarlet fever ( Common Antibiotics ). All the diseases have one thing in common, they all have the ability to spread, some faster than others.
However, it is assumed that the discovery of the penicillin as antibiotic belongs to Alexander Fleming in 1928. American Chemical Society (2004) states that Alexander Fleming was examining petri dishes with the colonies of pathogenic bacteria when saw the unusual thing: in the petri dish contaminated with mold bacteria were not growing at all. As a result, the work of separation of the substance that was killing different bacteria began, but was not successful. The experiments failed by Fleming were continued in 1939 by Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, and their colleagues at Oxford University. Due to the war it was difficult for scientists to perform experiments of purifying Penicillin, while hospitals which were overfilled with patients needed medicine which will cure all bacterial diseases.
This group’s main role is to fight bacteria that cause staphylococci etc. We are auspicious to be provided with numerous amounts of different antibiotics for our medical conditions. Penicillin has been one of the consummate and powerful Medicines yet conceived, and an example of one such disco... ... middle of paper ... ...uperior amounts, but no attention was paid. Later in 1938, 10 years after Fleming’s invention three scientists Howard Florey, Ernst Chain and Norman Heatley had prolonged Alexander Fleming’s work at the university of Oxford. They performed certain experiments for growing, sanitizing and extracting penicillin to substantiate its value as a drug.
Despite mounting evidence scientists have gathered to support their position that organisms past and present are linked through the mechanisms of evolution, one must simply look around to see the process in action. In recent years, the strides scientists have made in the theory of evolution have revealed discoveries that benefit us, but may harm us as well. Beneficial discoveries give us greater knowledge of our origins of life, but some lead to a truth that can lead to death and destruction because organisms that threaten our health receive evolutionary advantages. This threat takes form in antibiotic resistance of infectious diseases. In only the past few decades, antibiotics were hailed as the end to all suffering; a drug that could combat any ailment that plagued an individual.