Because... ... middle of paper ... ... shown in the shorthand 1s2 (s orbital level one, two electrons) 2s2 (s orbital level two, two electrons) 2p6 (p orbital level two, six electrons) 3s23p64s23d9. However, copper is unique in that to make the most stable and lowest energy configuration, one of the 4s electrons is brought into the 3d orbital. This makes its electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d10. This configuration shows that the first, second, and third shell of copper is completely full, but the fourth shell is not filled. The s subshell is partially filled and the p subshell is completely empty.
If all of the energy levels in the atom are full populated with electrons, it is said to be stable, and in most cases, is therefore unreactive. Examples of this include the noble (or inert) gases such as neon or argon. However if the outer energy level of the atom is not stable, it will automatically try to either gain or lose electrons to become stable. This is achieved by an ionic reaction. Ionic bonding occurs when the outer atoms of on material changes orbit and joins another material for example: Sodium chloride As you can see, sodium is a group one metal (it has one electron on its outer energy level) so is therefore unstable.
When atoms bond together to form a solid, the electron energy levels merge into bands. In electrical conductors, these bands are continuous but in insulators and semiconductors there is an "energy gap", in which no electron orbits can exist, between the inner valence band and outer conduction band [Book 1]. Valence electrons help to bind together the atoms in a solid by orbiting 2 adjacent nucleii, while conduction electrons, being less closely bound to the nucleii, are free to move in response to an applied voltage or electric field. The fewer conduction electrons there are, the higher the electrical resistivity of the material. In semiconductors, the materials from which solar sells are made, the energy gap Eg is fairly small.
Electrons can move between different levels and between different materials but to do that, they require the right amount of energy and an "empty" slot in the band they enter. The metallic conductors have a lot of these slots and this is where the free electrons will head when voltage (energy) is applied. A simpler way to look at this is to think of atoms aligned in a straight line (wire). if we add an electron to the first atom of the line, that atom would have an excess of electrons so it releases an other electron which will go to the second atom and the process repeats again and again until an electron pops out from the end of the wire. We can then say that conduction of an electrical current is simply electrons moving from one empty slot to another in the atoms' outer shells.
Superconductors research task What is a super conductor? A superconductor is an element or metallic alloy which when cooled below a certain temperature the material loses all electrical resistance. Therefore superconductors can allow electric current to flow without any energy loss due to no resistance. This type of current is also known as supercurrent. Due to the material has lost its electrical resistance the superconductor can carry a current indefinitely without losing energy.
This explains why we use fission in our nuclear reactors and not fusion. Fission, at its most simplest, is the splitting of a particle. Now, this happens every day with certain elements, and we don’t really notice. It is a type of radioactive decay. This usually only happens with heavy elements though.
A metal in this state has very unique magnetic properties that are unlike those at normal temperatures. A superconductor is often referred to as the perfect diamagnetic. Diamagnetic, ideally, are a class of materials that do not conserve magnetic flux, but expel it. A superconductor is classified as a perfect diamagnetic because by all measurable standards the magnetic flux within the material is zero. Electrons have a wave-like nature so an electron moving through a metal can be represented by a plane wave progressing in the same direction.
Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.ipfw.edu. Vorvick, Linda J., MD. Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (28 February 2011). MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine.
Conductors, like copper and other metals, have very low resistance, and superconductors, comprised of certain metals such as mercury and ceramics such as lanthanum-barium-copper-oxide, have no resistance. Resistance is an obstacle in the flow of electricity. Superconductors also have strong diamagnetism. In other words, they are repelled by magnetic fields. Due to these special characteristics of superconductors, no electrical energy is lost while flowing and since magnetic levitation above a superconductor is possible.
M... ... middle of paper ... ...m of particle.  Conclusion To conclude, classical and quantum mechanics have many similarity as well as differences. Classical mechanics solves the problem of system in the macroscopic scale whereas quantum mechanics solve the same problem in microscopic scale. At atomic/microscopic scale energy is quantised which means that energy cannot vary continuously, only in quanta. This suggests that is impossible to find the position and momentum of particle at any instant on the atomic scale.